In January 2008, the Municipality of Livorno decided to experiment an innovative type of decision making process concerning the renewal and the future use of the 'Cisternino', an ancient building historically used for water supply. The process was proposed by a citizen association, the “Laboratory for the future of Livorno”. The process had the ambitious goal to reflect on the present situation of the historical building and imagine a desirable future on the basis of the past.
As of 2010, Portsmouth, New Hampshire (population 20,000) has sustained the practice of organized, public dialogue and deliberation for over ten years. Since 1999, diverse community groups in Portsmouth have organized at least six rounds of large-scale dialogue-to-action circles (study circles) initiatives. This case study provides brief descriptions of four of these initiatives from 1999 through 2004. Descriptions of Portsmouth’s later public engagement initiatives will be added to this entry at a later date, or posted as separate entries.