Villa El Salvador is a district within the city of Lima, Peru. In 1999 it began using participatory budgeting (PB) as a means to create an urban development plan, with the first PB talks commencing in 2000.
This case study features a referendum on a controversial viaduct in Antwerp, Belgium. The construction of this viaduct was highly troubled and costly from the beginning, attracting heavy criticism from multiple groups. A referendum ultimately rejected plans to build the unpopular bridge, instead replacing it with a series of tunnels.