This case study features a new initiative that aims to promote a whole new form of participatory democracy across the European Union (EU). Citizen initiatives that garner 1 million signatures across a wide range of Member States will be considered by the European Commission. This gives residents across the EU the direct ability to propose legislation and influence matters that concern the entire continent.
G1000 is a project to revitalize and "advise" Belgium's current representative democratic system by complementing it with deliberative democracy. It is a response to the increasing ineffectiveness of the representative democracy system, as evidenced in part by the 2010-11 parliamentary crisis.
This case study features a referendum on a controversial viaduct in Antwerp, Belgium. The construction of this viaduct was highly troubled and costly from the beginning, attracting heavy criticism from multiple groups. A referendum ultimately rejected plans to build the unpopular bridge, instead replacing it with a series of tunnels.