In April 2001, the Canadian government established the Romanow Commission to deliberate with citizens on the future of healthcare in Canada. However, the commission overlooked the serious issue of engaging marginalised groups such as Aboriginal people, and did not provide separate participatory spaces for such groups. While some Aboriginal people participated in the dialogues, the outcomes did not fully reflect Aboriginal health issues.
In 2010 the Emilia-Romagna Region approved law no. 3/10 regarding citizen participation in decisions of public interest. The Region used this method in the development of a new regional transport plan. The current Regional Integrated Transportation Plan covered the time period 1998-2010. When drafting the new law, the Region decided to use participation as a mean to gather suggestions and solutions concerning transport and mobility issues. The Regional Department of Territorial Planning promoted the event, that was supported by an outside firm (Avventura Urbana).
The purpose of the Citizens’ Dialogue on Public Health Goals in Canada was to enable a randomly selected and representative sample of 102 citizen-participants to meet in-person and face-to-face to determine what they believed should be "public health goals for Canada." The participants' determinations respecting these goals were to inform the Canadian federal and provincial governments' development of a "public health strategy" for Canada.