Between October and December 2010, the first deliberative field experiment in Swiss direct democracy was conducted. The issue of the online experiment was the expulsion initiative („Ausschaffungsinitiative”) of the Swiss People’s Party (SVP) and the counterproposal of the government and parliament. The expulsion initiative was an emotionally charged issue with a populist dimension, and as such perhaps not well suited for reasoned discussion. At the same time, it is precisely this kind of direct democratic vote where deliberation is perhaps most needed.
An online consultation or e-consultation is the use of electronic computing and communication technologies in consultation processes. Online consultations can be effective tools in encouraging participation and gathering responses to consultation documents and social policy issues as part of a broader range of methodologies. This form of participation has no minimum or maximum amount of individuals who can participate. It also usually allows participants the freedom of selecting what time to engage in participation and how often.
The Year of Civil Discourse on Israel was a year long initiative organized by the Jewish Community Relations Council of San Francisco, The Peninsula, Marin, Sonoma, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. The Initiative was designed to foster discussion and community building among the Bay Area Jewish Community over disagreements regarding the Israel-Palestine conflict. From December 2010 to December 2011 a number of events were held to help tackle this issue, such as facilitator training sessions and book and movie reviews.
Antes de comentar el caso de la guardia indígena, es importante mencionar que los indígenas son un grupo social bastante específico, por cuanto son ciudadanos, pero no tienen los intereses ni la concepción de un ciudadano regular. Incluso, para algunas tribus indígenas, el ciudadano regular y las instituciones del estado son vistas con desprecio. Y esta particularidad, ha permitido que los indígenas hayan llevado a cabo el proceso de formación de la guardia indígena de la manera como se muestra a continuación.