"Kerala is one of India’s 28 states, situated in the south-western tip of the country." (Justino 3) Kerala was created on November 1, 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganization Act bringing together the areas where Malayalam is the dominant language. Kerala has a higher Human Development Index than all other states in India (UNDP HDI Trends (1981-2001) for selected Major Indian States).
Originating in Puerto Alegre in 1989, Participatory Budgeting (PB) has been implemented throughout the world. Jarabacoa is not a place known for its strength of civil society or citizen engagement. This pilot program of PB using SMS aims to increase civil society and involve citizens for greater government transparency and accountability. PB is part of a broader better governance intitative of the World Bank Initative and United Nations Development Program. PB has been regarded as a "best practice" for open and more effective governance.