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This case study features Conseils de quarter, or "neighborhood councils," which are infra-municipal participatory forums that serve as consultative bodies mandated by law in French cities with more than 80,000 residents.
In respect to the question of why participatory innovations are gaining support and what stimulates their development, democratic innovations are usually seen as a response to the general dissatisfaction with representative democracies. Since their main target is to supplement democracy and improve its quality, both citizens and governments in the West tend to be interested in participatory innovations.
Direct Democracy SA is an attempt to reform the South African electoral system by using citizen advocacy to convince currently elected politicans to commit to greater consultation with and accountability to the public, and to promote legislation to create a more democratic and representational electoral system.
EuroPolis was organized in response to the "democratic deficit" critique leveled against European politics. Through deliberative polling, it explores how informed debate can improve European democracy.The participants were selected from among more than 4,000 European citizens from the 27 member states of the EU polled for their views on immigration, climate change and the EU between March and May 2009. The findings from the deliberative polling excercise were presented in the Residence Palace in Brussels on the 3rd of June 2009.