The Alternative University Project (AltU) grew out of the frustration felt by a group of McGill and Concordia University students about the growing inaccessibility of the Quebec higher education system. The AltU is a collection of classes taught by professors, students, community members, or through innovative communal formats on subjects which range from “Knitting” and “Programming” to “Introduction to Anarchism” and “New Materials Writing Workshop and Discussion.”
Antes de comentar el caso de la guardia indígena, es importante mencionar que los indígenas son un grupo social bastante específico, por cuanto son ciudadanos, pero no tienen los intereses ni la concepción de un ciudadano regular. Incluso, para algunas tribus indígenas, el ciudadano regular y las instituciones del estado son vistas con desprecio. Y esta particularidad, ha permitido que los indígenas hayan llevado a cabo el proceso de formación de la guardia indígena de la manera como se muestra a continuación.
In respect to the question of why participatory innovations are gaining support and what stimulates their development, democratic innovations are usually seen as a response to the general dissatisfaction with representative democracies. Since their main target is to supplement democracy and improve its quality, both citizens and governments in the West tend to be interested in participatory innovations.
Gacaca courts are community trials, which try the perpetrators of the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda. They are a unique and large-scale national experiment in collaborative justice systems, and pose an important precedent for participatory community justice across the world.
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This case study features the Patient and Client Council (PCC), a publicly funded organization run by a 16-member management board under the Health and Socila Care (Reform) Act passed in Northern Ireland in 2009. The PCC aims to improve the involvement of health and social care services in public policy-making processes.