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This case study features a series of participatory planning workshops in Italy to develop new ideas and proposals about public spaces and poly-functional buildings. Representatives from local associations took part in thematic laboratories which discussed projects to improve public areas. These workshops successfully produced a number of proposals, evaluations, and implementation plans.
As of 2010, Portsmouth, New Hampshire (population 20,000) has sustained the practice of organized, public dialogue and deliberation for over ten years. Since 1999, diverse community groups in Portsmouth have organized at least six rounds of large-scale dialogue-to-action circles (study circles) initiatives. This case study provides brief descriptions of four of these initiatives from 1999 through 2004. Descriptions of Portsmouth’s later public engagement initiatives will be added to this entry at a later date, or posted as separate entries.