New York City has a historically corrupt and non-transparent budgetting process. The New York City Council is also known for its extremely non-transparent funding structure whereby the Speaker of the Majority can determine a City Council Member's discertionary budget within a range of $3-$11 Million Dollars. The New York City Council has also had a slew of corruption scandels linking council members to patronage and clientialism.
Villa El Salvador is a district within the city of Lima, Peru. In 1999 it began using participatory budgeting (PB) as a means to create an urban development plan, with the first PB talks commencing in 2000.