Community Planning (CP) is a statutory framework in Scotland which seeks to engage citizens and communities in local-level political decision-making processes, while at the same time improving coordination and collaboration between elected and unelected bodies that provide public services. Statutory guidance issued by the Scottish Government (then the Scottish Executive) in 2004 stipulated that CP’s two core goals are:
Participatory health councils allow Brazilian citizens to oversee the country's public health system (the Sistema Único de Saúde - Unified Health System or SUS). These councils exist at the municipal, state, and national level, and are supplemented by a national conference on the Brazilian health system held every four years. Though these coucils vary in diversity and in their success in impacting government decisions, citizens generally remain actively involved with the councils.
The problem is that citizens feel that there are not enough outdoor recreation resources and opportunities, more specifically for those individuals that have limited access and use of the outdoor recreation resources for reasons including age, income, or knowledge. Below is an explanation of the purpose and a brief excerpt from the New Hampshire Outdoors, Revised.
This article presents an interesting case of urban planning with citizen participation developed in Santiago de Chile. The case is primarily about the development and implementation of a standard methodology that allows for a real appropriation of public space by citizens, developing urban spaces that are sustainable over time.