Community Planning (CP) is a statutory framework in Scotland which seeks to engage citizens and communities in local-level political decision-making processes, while at the same time improving coordination and collaboration between elected and unelected bodies that provide public services. Statutory guidance issued by the Scottish Government (then the Scottish Executive) in 2004 stipulated that CP’s two core goals are:
In respect to the question of why participatory innovations are gaining support and what stimulates their development, democratic innovations are usually seen as a response to the general dissatisfaction with representative democracies. Since their main target is to supplement democracy and improve its quality, both citizens and governments in the West tend to be interested in participatory innovations.
The Warwick Junction Urban Renewal Project was organized in response to inefficient, unsafe, and unsanitary conditions that developed at a primary transport node located in the South African city of Durban. The impetus for the project stemmed from urban management and design issues that resulted from increased taxi and street trading activity.