Participatory Budgeting (PB) is a process implemented in the 1990s where residents of certain regions can influence how their governments' annual budgets are allocated. After the collapse of its authoritarian regime in the mid 1980s, Brazilians implemented reforms to bolster their economic and political futures through participatory methods. These new democratic practices drastically improved the lives and social infrastructure of its participants.
In the context of the perpetual crisis of urban transportation in Bucharest, there is a growing population of city dwellers fighting for bicycle rights and advocating for a new, bicycle friendly infrastructure in Bucharest. The bicycle fans coagulated since the mid 2000’s into different groups and NGO’s and developed into a new movement and a powerful presence in the urban landscape, adopting several strategies of public participation.
Raymond, New Hampshire is a town seeking change. A community group called Positive Raymond collaborated with the University of New Hampshire's New Hampshire Listens Program to host a one day forum in which community members could come together to discuss how to make Raymond a better place to live, work, and learn. Framing questions for the conversation included:
* What do you like most about living in Raymond?
* What about Raymond do you think could be improved?
This case study features a referendum on a controversial viaduct in Antwerp, Belgium. The construction of this viaduct was highly troubled and costly from the beginning, attracting heavy criticism from multiple groups. A referendum ultimately rejected plans to build the unpopular bridge, instead replacing it with a series of tunnels.