Participatory Budgeting (PB) is a process implemented in the 1990s where residents of certain regions can influence how their governments' annual budgets are allocated. After the collapse of its authoritarian regime in the mid 1980s, Brazilians implemented reforms to bolster their economic and political futures through participatory methods. These new democratic practices drastically improved the lives and social infrastructure of its participants.
New Hampshire has an established history of legalized gambling, with poker events, bingo nights, Lucky-7 ticket sales, and wagering at the state‘s race tracks bringing in a total of $615 million in 2008. However, though New Hampshire was the first state to introduce lotteries, the public is still discussing whether it would be prudent to continue to expand gambling.
This case study features the ten 2007/2008 Citizen Conferences, each consisting of 8 to 10 New Mexican Adult Citizens and lasting 9 hours. This series of deliberative events was convened by the New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) and the University of New Mexico's Institute for Public Policy (IPP) to gather public feedback, so that the State could best meet the transportation needs of its citizens.
As required by the government of Ontario to involve residents in the decision making process concerning their health care systems after the passing of the Local Health System Integration Act in 2006, the South East Local Health Integration Network (SE LHIN) launched the community engagement phase of their Clinical Services Roadmap project in March of 2011. The project was initiated to gain community feedback and strengthen the health care system in South East Ontario. Residents submitted their opinions concerning seven central focus areas of clinical services in the form on a workbook over an eight week period. The results from the project were incorporated in to the South East LHIN decisions involving services and allocations.