New York City has a historically corrupt and non-transparent budgetting process. The New York City Council is also known for its extremely non-transparent funding structure whereby the Speaker of the Majority can determine a City Council Member's discertionary budget within a range of $3-$11 Million Dollars. The New York City Council has also had a slew of corruption scandels linking council members to patronage and clientialism.
Pittsburgh’s Citizen Participation Plan (CPP) for the 2010-2014 Five Year Consolidated Plan used a combination of civic and community engagement methods to include citizens and civic society in the planning process.
The Warwick Junction Urban Renewal Project was organized in response to inefficient, unsafe, and unsanitary conditions that developed at a primary transport node located in the South African city of Durban. The impetus for the project stemmed from urban management and design issues that resulted from increased taxi and street trading activity.