2 - Seldom Tied to Other Issues

Unlike 'institutionalized' forms of participation, informal methods of engagement are acted out on a day-to-day basis as part of routine human interaction. Although informal participation takes place outside of political institutions, the kinds of interaction may be the same including dialogue, deliberation, collaborative decision-making, etc.
An educational model that gives students equal say in determining curriculum and activities.
School councils are similar to Parent Teacher Associations in that they give recommendations to principals and school boards on a variety of issues. They differ in that councils also include students, non-teaching staff members and community representatives.
A deliberative technique used to replicate the ‘natural’ thought process among participants when reflecting on and address an issue.
PLI is a pro-poor method of advocacy used by the Justice, Development and Peace Commission to implement their Democratic and Election Monitoring (Good Governance) Project in Nigeria.
The Station Rounds technique can be used in different deliberative contexts as a way of visualizing both the number of available options to address each issue and the level of consensus among people's preferences for each option.
Developed by Dr. Edward de Bono, the Six Thinking Hats technique allows participants to approach a discussion from multiple points of view.

Method: Machizukuri

Machizukuri is a method of inter-community dialogue and community-government engagement.
Motiemarkt, or "Motion-Market" is a unique form of participatory budgeting in which citizens and civil society groups 'sell' their projects to council members for inclusion in the yearly budget.
Definition Neighbourhood councils have been a part of Québec city’s democratic life for 20 years. The first experiences were implemented by the Ville de Québec in 1993, in order to get the citizens more closely involved in municipal politics. The concept was extended to the whole city territory in 1997...
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