3 - Somewhat Polarized

Participatory urban planning directly engages neighbourhood residents in the process of land use planning. Residents provide local knowledge and information to compliment the technical know-how of experts and officials. Solutions are collectively developed to meet the needs of the community.
L'urbanisme participatif intègre les citoyens vivant dans le quartier au quotidien dans la réflexion sur l'aménagement du territoire. Ces derniers apportent des informations et connaissances complémentaires à celles des experts. Les réponses sont trouvées collectivement pour répondre aux besoins de la communauté.
Community Score Card is a method of participatory evaluation and oversight of government services developed by CARE.
Like LiquidFeedback, Adhocracy is an online tool modelled after the decentralized "Liquid Democracy" method of collaborative governance.
LiquidFeedback is an online proposition development and decision-making tool which seeks to operationalize the concept of 'liquid democracy'.

Method: BarCamp

Participatory workshops similar in form to Open Space Technology but which make use of online platforms to increase the scope of information sharing.

Method: Referendum

Synonymous with plebiscite and ballot question, a referendum is a direct vote by the populace on a single political issue such as a proposed piece of legislation.
Community committees are representative bodies established as intermediaries between an area’s residents and a higher level of government.
Participatory rural appraisal is a citizen-centred method of development. The process empowers locals by including them directly in the issue identification and evaluation process and, in many cases, in the final implementation and post-construction monitoring.
The Gadaa system is an indigenous egalitarian democratic system being practiced among the Oromo nation of East Africa for the last six hundred years. Among other structural elements of Gadaa system is its legislative body commonly known as Gadaa General Assembly. The assembly takes place under a sycamore tree -...
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