• Corruption and political paralysis caused public service provision to become inefficient and unreliable When garbage collection in the governorates of Beirut and Mount Lebanon came to a halt in July 2015, citizen-organized protests soon grew to revolutionary proportions.
  • Since the early 2000s, Uganda has placed an emphasis on bottom-up development by NGO’s and microfinance. The ‘people-centred’ approach to poverty alleviation and community development allows active participation and self-determination absent in the traditional market and state top-down models that discouraged popular participation and alienated citizens.
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