Information and Communications Technologies (ICT)

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Information and communications technologies (ICT) encompass a broad range of tools and techniques emphasising the connective role of information technologies (IT). ICTs require the integration between telecommunications (telephone lines, wireless signals), and computers (including software, middleware, audio-visual systems) which allows users to generate, store, transmit and manipulate information. Due to its broad and vague nature, the definition of ICT is constantly evolving as technology advances and systems of communication become more complex. 

Problems and Purpose

Broadly speaking, ICT can be used in any place where face-to-face interaction is impossible or where it is more efficient (resource or time-wise) to communicate through technology. Multiple studies have been done comparing the efficacy of online vs face-to-face deliberation methods such as Citizens' Juries but results are inconclusive. While it may not be ideal for deliberation, ICT does provide an easy and accessible way to articulate preferences through, for example, online voting or SMS (text message) notifications. 



Participant Selection


Deliberation, Decisions, and Public Interaction


Influence, Outcomes, and Effects


Analysis and Lessons Learned


Secondary Sources


External Links




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