National Government

Participatory Forest Management (PFM) is a community-based approach to forest conservation and management. Melanie McDermott and Kate Schreckenberg, who write about equity in community forestry and the experiences faced in both North and South countries, describe community forestry as an ‘‘exercise by local people over decisions regarding management of forests,...
Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) schemes have become a primary way of financing healthcare in several developing countries today. In most countries, CBHI schemes are financed through general tax revenues or contributions from social insurance groups[i]. In Ethiopia, the CBHI initiative was set up as a community-based health project that...
An educational model that gives students equal say in determining curriculum and activities.

Method: Social Media

Definition According to the Oxford English Dictionary, social media encompasses "websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking." [1] In the context of public participation initiatives, social media is often used as a supplementary channel of engagement used to inform participants...
Encompassing the variety of methods which seek justice through cooperative, inclusive processes. Justice sought in this manner attempts to re-balance and repair individual and community relationships.
Problems and Purpose Os Encontros Regionais dos Conselhos da Comunidade ocorridos nos anos de 2007 e 2008 alcançaram a extensão de Norte a Sul do Brasil. No ano de 2007 ocorreu o Encontro Regional da Região Sul e, em seguida, no ano de 2008, os Encontros estenderam-se às regiões: Sudeste,...
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Problems and Purpose The so-called ‘Internet of Things’ - using the Internet to allow physical appliances to connect with other tools on the network - offers policymakers the opportunity to collect and share massive amounts of data about constituents’ behavior to guide and improve public well-being. Seeking to capitalize upon...
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Problems and Purpose Each year, federal agencies author approximately 2,500 to 4,500regulations. While these regulations are typically supposed to be subject to a public comment period, public input is largely nonexistent. [1] Regulations.gov is an online platform where users can comment on pending and proposed federal regulations. The portal is...

Method: Referendum

Synonymous with plebiscite and ballot question, a referendum is a direct vote by the populace on a single political issue such as a proposed piece of legislation.
Community committees are representative bodies established as intermediaries between an area’s residents and a higher level of government.
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