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LiquidFeedback is an online proposition development and decision-making tool which seeks to operationalize the 'liquid democracy' method of governance "in which most issues are decided (or strongly suggested to representatives) by direct referendum. Considering nobody has enough time and knowledge for every issue, votes can be dynamically delegated by topic. Delegations are transitive and can be revoked at any time. Liquid Democracy is sometimes referred to as [online] 'Delegated' or 'Proxy Voting'." [1]

Problems and Purpose

The Liquid Democracy method of governance would not be possible without the connective power of the internet. LiquidFeedback was created as a way to operationalize the Liquid Democracy concept; transforming it from a theoretical model of governance to a functional political system.


According to Jose Ramos, LiquidFeedback was developed in 2009 by Andreas Nitchea, Axel Kistner, Jan Behrens, and Björn Swierczek who would later set up the organization Interaktive Democratie to promote it. [2]

Participant Selection


Deliberation, Decisions, and Public Interaction


Influence, Outcomes, and Effects


Analysis and Lessons Learned


Secondary Sources



External Links




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