The following case examines the existence of women in Community Fishing Councils (CCPs) in the Mozambique Artisanal Fisheries and Climate Change Project (FishCC), which is a part of the World Bank’s Integrated Landscape Management Portfolio in Mozambique .
Problems and Purpose
Mozambique is among the few countries with a gender strategy specifically for fisheries . More recently, there has been a shift towards increasing decentralization of local fisheries management, instead empowering community fishing councils (CCPs), which refer to "community-based organizations comprising of fishers who assist the government in ensuring the sustainable management of fisheries” . However, the lack of legislation poses issues related to the rights and responsibilities of these organizations . The potential for elite capture is indicated by the underrepresentation and weak organization of women traders in CCPs . Thus, in the context of Mozambique, Nhantumbo and Gaile (2020) state that “CCPs must be empowered to devise and implement their own fisheries resource-management plans” . Ways of reformulating Fishery resource-management plans thus must focus on both fishing activity . However, instead of diverting sources of income to reduce poverty, another option is in utilizing a co-management system in fisher organizations .
Background History and Context
A review conducted in 2011 regarding fisheries governance interventions in Mozambique noted that while there was support in their development, many still require more support, particularly in their organizational and institutional capacity, training, and knowledge of legislation .
Norad (2014) visited a fishing village in Zongoene and interviewed nine male members of the local CCP; women trading fish in the village are members of the local PCR, however, not members of the CCP . Despite having been invited to join the CCP, as the gendered divisions of the roles, with "fishers go[ing] out fishing early morning, when they return, traders go out selling" , it was difficult to find a mutually convenient time. The selected fishing community of Inhassoro focuses on combating climate change and how it impacts global fish populations and the communities relying on them for their livelihoods .
Organizing, Supporting, and Funding Entities
Mozambique's Integrated Landscape Management Portfolio (ILM) brought together various projects in order to improve the livelihood of Mozambique's vulnerable rural communities . The supporting and funding entities involved in the portfolio are the Government of Mozambique, the Government of Sweden, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), the European Union, KfW Group, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Agence Française de Développement (AFD), Peace Parks Foundation, and USAID . The Integrated Landscape Management Portfolio team in Mozambique team worked on discovering how community empowerment and the comanagement of fishing areas may change methods of managing local and regional fisheries .
What Went On: Process, Interaction, and Participation
The Mozambique Artisanal Fisheries and Climate Change Project (FishCC) is an initiative led by the Government of Mozambique as a part of the World Bank’s Integrated Landscape Management Portfolio between 2015–2019 . FishCC focused on strengthening local management of coastal resources through the support of fisheries councils and small-scale fishers . They discovered the following lessons :
- Support of fishing communities must be aimed to diversify livelihoods and increase ‘financial resilience’
- Consistency and trust are foundational in community engagement
- Strength in legal frameworks
- Coordination between all stakeholders is crucial
Influence, Outcomes, and Effects
Analysis and Lessons Learned