The Urban Conservation Training Program at Gudri Mosque has been providing support for architectural and conservation education at Kabul University from 2014 to 2021.
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Problems and Purpose
The preservation of cultural heritage holds great significance as it brings historic buildings and communities to life, despite the significant challenges faced in Afghanistan. However, the current generation is tasked with delivering this value to the next generation, despite the ongoing Civil War and governmental instability that hinder progress within the country. Furthermore, natural disasters such as earthquakes, soil settlements, traffic vibrations, air pollution, and micro-climate have placed cultural heritage sites under specific threats.
In addition, new urban plans and population growth over the last two decades have also posed significant issues in the conservation process of cultural heritage. Therefore, participants in the program have sought to take more severe steps to actively contribute to documenting these heritages for future generations.
Since 2002, the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) has collaborated with international partners and Afghan counterparts from the Government of Afghanistan to restore many international sites in historic cities such as Kabul, Balkh, Herat, and Badakhshan. The program aimed to preserve the historical sites and ensure the long-term survival of these sites while dramatically improving the living conditions of destitute communities around them.
The program was designed to support architectural and conservation education at Kabul University, starting in 2008/9, with a senior conserved architect providing conservation and history courses for the students of the Architecture department. In the following term, AKTC extended the program, involving students from the Archaeology Department in joint contributions.
The project’s goals were outlined as follows:
- The Engineering Faculty's Department of Architecture added a new program under Heritage Conservation, including a "Building Archaeology" course. The syllabus for this program is provided in the annex.
- Fieldwork activities were conducted at the Gudri Mosque Preserved Heritage Area, where students could put their gained knowledge into practice.
- The program aimed to enhance the understanding of urban conservation among individuals within the Department of Architecture and Archaeology at Kabul University, the Department of Architecture and Planning at Polytechnic University, other secondary organizations, and recent graduates now based in relevant government departments. This understanding will likely be encountered in professional practice across the country.
- The program coordinated with other institutions to enhance conservation training education.
- The program extended its teaching to include architectural conservation, urban planning, and urban governance. Students were exposed to conservation, urban planning, and urban governance projects through academic training.
- The program provided a series of lectures, conferences, and seminars conducted by senior staff from the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) and practicing professionals.
Background History and Context
Afghanistan is known to be the heart of Asia. It is one of the oldest countries of the ancient world, possessing a written history of five thousand years. The position acted as a lesion between East and West, providing a trade-like channel of ideas, arts, culture, and music.
Afghanistan is well-known for its multicultural and cultural diversity in the Middle East. It is estimated that more than 20000 Archeological sites have been discovered, and thousands remain unexplored. The longstanding civil War has made these heritage sites vulnerable and, in some areas, have been demolished.
The Kabul University Universities Major, as a knowledge production institution in Afghanistan, supported the program under the Partnership program with Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) in 2015. It was based on the requirement of modern knowledge and practicing Cultural Heritages. The program facilitated participants to learn side by side and exchange experiences on the ground. Therefore, that was the first innovative field approach within the University since 1932.
The educational program Provided classroom sessions teaching Building Archaeology Course and Conservation Heritage Course as a Selective for applicants interested in Cultural Heritage Conservations practice. Field works were also conducted alongside sessions, which was an effective way to put knowledge into Practice. The program also provided online lectures by senior Conserved Architects from Abroad to enhance their knowledge and raise awareness of cultural heritage conservation practices by conducting workshops and seminars.
Gudri Mosque Historic Site for conducting Filed Work is located on “Saraji Street,” in the old city of Kabul. The Mosque was built by the King of Moghul (Shah Jahan) in the 15th Century. Archaeological findings have shown that the Mosque was restored by the King of Moghul (Awarang Zaib Alam) later in 1658. The street where the Mosque is located had also connected Balah-e-Sar Citadel with Chahar-Chata Market Bazar, Lahore gate. It was crucial in connecting the areas before Maiwand Main Street was established in 1951.[i]
Temur Shah Durrani King and Habibullah Khan King restored the building several times in the early 19 Century: Civil War and its environmental effects. Earthquakes and floods affected the Mosque between 1992- 1996. The lack of resources, professionals, weak governance, and lack of public civic engagements made this historic building much more vulnerable. Photography records in 2009 show that the building was not in good condition and needed urgent protection aids. Meanwhile, The Historical Mosque was used as a public school from 2009-2014.
The AKTC started the conservation and Restoration of the project under the Conservation training program in 2014. Aga Khan Trust for Culture is an integral part of the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN), established in 1988 in Geneva, Switzerland, as a private foundation. His Highness Aga Khan created this family institution to improve the welfare and prospects of people in countries in the developing world, particularly in Asia and Africa.[i] AKTC has completed more than 140 restorations and Landscape projects across Afghanistan since commencing its work in 2002. [ii]
[i] Aga Khan Trust for Culture website
[ii] Arch Dailly website
[i] Najimi, Abdul Wassay . "Studies in Vernacular architecture in Afghanistan" Training in the conservation of Historic Structure in Kabul old City, International Journal of Environmental Studies.
Organizing, Supporting, and Funding Entities
The U.S. (United States) Embassy in Kabul has granted various project opportunities in Afghanistan for government and private sectors and national and international levels to contribute the best participatory innovations and governance in Afghanistan. The Department of Cultural Affairs was the fund provider of the project. Therefore, AKTC, an established organization conducting Cultural Conservation Projects with a solid technical background, implemented the project between 2014 and 2021.
Participant Recruitment and Selection
The project has three types of participants:
- Participants were students in their fourth and Fifth years (Department of Architecture) and 2nd, third-, and fourth-years Students of the Anthropology/Archaeology Department) at Kabul University.
- Students of Architecture and Planning at Kabul Polytechnic University
- Scholars, Researchers, and professionals from other public universities and academic institutions, such as Students at the Polytechnic Faculty of Engineering, Department of Ancient and Modern History, Faculty of Fine Arts, Archaeology Institute of Afghanistan, Afghanistan's Academia of Sciences, Afghanistan's National Museum and Historic monument Protection Department.
- Official guests, tourists, and locals
Participation was required for the students of Architecture and Archaeology to complete the allocated credit. But for other participants, such as scholars, researchers, professionals, and practitioners. Tourists and locals and their organizations or AKTC central office should introduce them officially to benefit from this project.
Furthermore, the participants from various educational backgrounds and experiences were chained into a strong network. To assist them in working collaboratively to develop the approach for a Long-term partnership program in the future. Moreover, the exchange of knowledge among the participants with a wide range of perspectives and educational backgrounds increased the program's efficiency.
Methods and Tools Used
The project was implemented under the supervision of Kabul University, the Ministry of Information, Culture and Truism, the Institute of Archaeology, and other relevant De facto ministries. The participants were selected from different backgrounds, gender, ethnic groups, ages, and religions. In addition, the project provided equal opportunity for both (Females and Males). Especially female participants were encouraged in this process. The students' participation was assessed, and the academic Performances of Individuals were scored. Thus, it facilitated students to spend enough time on the ground to obtain optimum results.
The content of the program had been running three times a week. Involving students enrolled at Kabul University only. Lectures and field visits in the context of Cultural Heritage, building Archaeology and Conservation have been provided as follows:
- Lectures inside the classroom (Faculty building) time set (8:00 am-10:00 am) Tow days per week by Kabul University and International instructors.
- Practical work (Conducting fieldwork) On the Site. Time set (Thursday, 8:00 am-4:00 pm). Total of 24 working hours per week.
- For Scholars, Researchers, Professionals, Practitioners, Tourists and Locals, the working time was set Saturday-Thursday from –9:00 am to 4:00 pm.
- Lectures and discussions inside Gudri Mosque for newcomers and guests
- Free meals to participants while they were on-site or on the field trip,
- Cover transport costs from the University to the project site and vice versa,
- Free Stationery,
- Covering Trevell of expense (side visiting) across the country,
- Free access to all preserved and cultural heritage sites that AKTC resorted to and implemented,
- Access to Aga Khan networks (musical education, intangible Arts sections) and library,
- Free Scanning, copying, and printing services were provided.
What Went On: Process, Interaction, and Participation
Cultural Practices for preservation and Restoration require much effort and energy. The educational program played a vital role in the Conservation of Cultural heritage. The Gudri Mosque building was the Center to facilitate the process and arranged educational training opportunities. The program brought the knowledge of Heritage theories from indoors (classrooms) to outdoors (fieldwork). It was the first time that Kabul University students conducted fieldwork jointly. Architects and archeologists had the chance to work side by side on the ground and take part in the heritage restoration process entirely.
Moreover, it was the first time the Department of Architecture added building Archaeology as a new course to their curriculum, making the educational training much more effective. Another highlighted point was that students of the Archaeology Department had the chance to learn technical drawing skills and measuring technics that were impossible for them before. In addition, teaching and instructing were practical approaches to learning new theories and principles. Meanwhile, putting all the theoretical approaches into Practice was something remarkable. Furthermore, Afghanistan has many archaeological sites and Historical buildings that have remained unexcavated or unrestored due to Insecurity, Lack of funding, lack of professionals, and weak governance. Thus, Gudri Mosque was a secure place for participants to dig, explore, restore, research, exchange knowledge and learn new skills. Furthermore, Female participants were encouraged to contribute in a safe and secure place to practice learned knowledge and principles.
A series of Lectures, Conference and seminars were held by Guest Professors, Practicing Professional as that provisionally included:
- "Bust and Jam Historic Monuments." By Architect Jolyon Lesli from Afghanistan Cultural Heritage Consulting Organization (ACHCO) on 20th 2015. AKTC,
- “From Babur to Aurangzeb, a development of inheritance imported by the Moghol Emperors in India and Outreached to Afghanistan." By Prof.Dr. Ferrante FERANTI from Political Since the University of Paris in. March 3rd, 2016, AKTC building,
- Drawing of Afghanistan. By Prof. Erik Hansen. February 25th, 2016. AKTC. Through Skype,
- Architecture and Urban Design. Lecture by Prof. Kazimee, June 28th, 2015. AKTC,
- Art and Architecture. By Prof. Micheal Barry from Princeton University, USA. August 25th, 2015. AKTC.
- Practicing Structural Documentation of the building components through sketching. (Students of Architecture department),
- Learning methods of technical drawing for relics and artifacts (Students of the Anthropology Archaeology department)
- Throughout the project, artifacts in the database were established by the participant,
- The project organized live open discussion groups on the field to explore new opportunities and ideas,
- Structured the building and restored the walls, foundations, and Pedestals simultaneously to practice the codes of conduct and international laws on Materials and assembly to meet the criteria.
- Practicing new technics in archaeological excavation and utilizing the new tools to gain optimum data,
- Analysis of data in the lap, indeed, Pottery, Coins, and glass dating to figure out when it was made and how it was being brought here,
- Conducted proper Documentation entire structure of the building,
- Sketched every single architectural element and pattern,
- Practiced the national and international code of conduct for Historical building and Archaeological excavations,
- Ensured the entire process was up to code,
- They practiced measurement scales of interior and exterior dimensions of walls, rooms, doors, and windows. Archaeologists used the same techniques to Mauser the archaeological findings, such as pottery, coins, and glass.
- Practiced dating methods on findings to establish a chronological analysis of the building.
- Cleaned archaeological findings and stored them for further study.
On-the-job training of students in documentation and conservation
Gudri Mosque, a historic property in the Old City of Kabul designated as needing urgent Restoration, was selected for Conservation training under this project. The project was used as a hands-on training opportunity. The students had a degree of input into all aspects of the project, from pre-project planning to implementation , as follows: Survey the Site to collect all required data from the field,
- Interviewed more than ten residents face to face to understand the Oral History of the Mosque,
- Measure the building, walls, foundations, and courtyard to find its original structure,
- Documenting and registration of Building components,
- Repairing the most vulnerable elements of the building to prevent more hazards,
- Analysis of building structure to ensure the building can support modern amenities,
- Archaeological digging was carried out to understand the building's chronological order and find out the building's original structure,
- To Collect broken Architectural elements for further research and reuse. Such as walls, patterns, arches, Columns,
- Archaeological Findings are Registered in the database,
- Restorations of basement, walls, arches, Columns, and building entrance,
- Repairing of doors, Windows, and Roofs.
- Restructure the building and maintain the original building character.
- 26 archaeological sections have been dug and show several Chronological Restorations as Follows:
- The Mosque was built in Moghul Period by Shah Jahan in the 15th Century for the First Time,
- Awrang Zaib King did the First Restoration in 1068,
- Then the building is restored by Timur Shah Durani from 1746-1793,
- The last Restoration was done by Amir Abdul Rahman Khan (1880-1901 and Amir Habibullah Khan (1901-1919) King with a modern Architectural style,
- Archaeological findings show that the building is around 365 years old,
- Two different structures appeared that show the Mosque demolished in 19 Century and reconstructed by Amir Habibullah in 1900,
- The building's original structure is built on the bottom floor, which functions as a winter mosque. After several restorations, the new building was built on the top floor in a slightly fresh style,
Archaeological artifacts such as Pottery, Glass, Coins, bricks and one ancient stone inscription have been discovered and stored in the building museum collections for further research.
Gudri Mosque Architectural components
The original structure of the building belongs to the Mongol period. The new structure of the building had been built on the ruins of the old building with an Indian and contemporary artistic style (Indian-English).
- The area of the Mosque is more than 1929 meters square.
- The building has two essential parts.
- The basement had used as Mosque for worshipers during winter.
- Ground floor Mosque for prayers during the spring season.
- The building has five halls named (A, B, C, D and E) and three of them (A, C and E) have Mihrab (indicating the direction to Mecca)
- The Mosque has four Minaret with two entrances.
- The Mosque has a large central Sehn (courtyard) and one main entrance with a brick Moghul and vernacular Architectural style (Octagonal).
- The main building has Six windows, Roshandan.
- The Mosque has one balcony, added in the later Saraji Period in 19 Century.
- The building had provided the place for almost 580 prayers at one time.
- The building was built with the materials such as stone, lime, raw and baked clay, and iron.
Field Trip/City tour
Site visiting, City Tour, and field trips were significant parts of the program which could assist the participants in gaining depth understanding of Afghanistan's natural landscapes, historical buildings, archaeological sites, and restorations running projects on the ground to evaluate the significance values of Heritage protections and its impact on sustainable development.
The Participants visited these historically preserved areas to explore, gain, investigate and discover the most relevant facts about Archaeological Sites and Historic buildings.
o Bagh Babur Shah King Historical Garden was built by direct order of Babur King of Moghul in Kabul City in 1528.
On February 25th, 2020, around 25 participants visited the Babur Historic Garden and the following parts:
- Shah Jahan Marbel Mosque
- Queen's Palace
- Historic Graves
- Swimming poll
- Exhibition Hall
The participants were required to provide the Site visiting reports and their analysis section. Thus, the participants were divided into five groups, and each group presented their reports inside the class.
o Bagh Chehel Stoon Historical Garden was built by Shah Zaman, King of Afghanistan, in 1796.
Around 30 Students from the fourth and fifth years of the Architecture department visited the Chehel-Stoon Palac/Garden on March 5th, 2020. Only 10 out of 30 were female students. The participants visited the following sections of the Garden:
- The Palac main building
- Meeting Rooms
- Exhibition Hall
- Information Center
- Courtyard/Garden 
The participants were required to provide the Site visiting reports and their analysis section. Thus, the participants were divided into five groups, and each group presented their reports inside the class.
o Darul Aman Castel (Historical building)
King Amanullah Khan built Darul Aman Palace for his victory against the British Empire and gained complete independence from Afghanistan in 1920. The palace was structured in a Western architectural style with 150 small and large rooms and a library with 32 restrooms. [i]
This historic building restoration project was carried out by the Ministry of urban planning and Housing in 2016 within four years to complete. The project cost was around 16 million U.D. dollars. [ii]
Several participants visited Darulaman Palace before the restoration project began. They analyzed the negative impact of the Civil War in Afghanistan, specifically on cultural heritages.
o Afghanistan National Museum (Historical building and collections)
On April 18th, 2019, around 21 Participants (only females) visited Afghanistan's national museums. These site visits were included.
- The Museum collections (Prehistoric-Islamic period)
- Exhibition Hall: visited the museum's collections, including Mes-e-Aynak's newly discovered artifacts.
- The Museum Garden
- Afghanistan's King Car Collections
The participants provided the site-visiting report and their analysis and presented it to other classmates.
o The Old City of Kabul (shahr-e-Kohna) old houses and structure (Historical city)
In February 2020, around ten students: (6 male and four female) had a Toure to the old city of Kabul. They explored the structure of the buildings, irrigation systems, architectural components, Landscape and Moghul Islamic Arts and Handicrafts.
The students visited these Historical sites as well:
- Shana Sazi Mosque
- Guldasta Mosque
- Old Market Bazar
Goals of visiting these mosques and Market Bazar was to compare the Mughal Architectural style (similarities and differences) between these Mosques and Gudri Mosque. Moreover, to measure the influence of Mughal Arts in the region.
o Eidgah Mosque (Islamic period, Historical Mosque)
On the 11th of Aprile 2019, around 11 female participants visited Eid-gah Mosque. These explorations included:
- Visiting the Mosque's main building, understanding the used materials, and deliberating Vernacular Architecture Arts in Afghanistan compared to this Mosque.
- Understanding the restoration process.
- Visiting the courtyard and another part of the Mosque compering Islamic Artcurial style to similar regions.
In addition, the students were visiting the Mosque while the restoration project was running. Therefore, that was the best example to Monitor/evaluate the restoration process and discover the challenges and opportunities.
o Timur shah Durani Mausoleum (Islamic Monument)
In February 2020, around ten students: (6 male and four female) visited Timur Shahi Durrani, one of the restored historical monuments in Kabul City. This monument was built in 1815. The project's Restoration began by Aga Khan Trust for Culture in 2003.[i] 
The students explored the various parts of the building and the two essential parts:
- The basement is where the king's shrine is located.
- The Tomb expresses a complex architectural style.
o Topdara (Buddhist Historical Monument)
On June 27th, 2019, around 40 participants, including 28 males and 12 females, visited and explored one of the run restoration projects (Stopa-e-Topdara). This historical monument is the largest standing Stopa (Stopa, a hemispherical structure containing relics and runs of Buddha and his monks)  in Afghanistan, dated between 200-400 CE.[i] The Stopa was beginning to restore by the Afghanistan Cultural Heritage consulting organization (ACHCO) in 2016. while The Afghan Institute of Archaeology staff were excavating on the Site.
The project manager, the conserved Architect, explained the project briefly and assisted the students in analyzing the context, material components, Architectural style, arts, and natural Landscape and discovered artifacts from a broad perspective. Question and Answer enhanced a mutual understanding between the students and the project team. This visit took place from 6:00 am–2:00 pm.
Istalif, the traditional pottery Market Bazar
Istalif is a village in the northern part of Kabul. This village is famous for its traditional pottery production and natural Landscape. It has been over 1400 years since pottery was produced as a traditional product in the markets. . Takht-e- Istallif is a resort for tourists and visitors, specifically those interested in cultural heritage and Arts.
On June 27th 2019, around 40 Students, on the way to return from the Topdara site, visited Istalif village and the traditional pottery Market. The participants explored. How is the pottery made, and in what condition? What are the materials and the process?
Bamiyan Historic Valley is in the central part of Afghanistan. The Cultural Landscape and archeological remains of the valley present the artistic and religious development from the 1st to 13th centuries, characterized by ancient Bacteria integrating various cultural influences into the Gandhara schools of Buddhist art. [i]
In July 2019, around 55 Participants (13 Female and 34 Male) visited Bamiyan province. While Bamiyan was placed on UNECO's world heritages in Donger list in 2003. The Taliban destroyed the largest Stutes of Bamiyan in 2001. [ii] The participants visited these sites as follows:
- Bamiyan Statues
- Bamiyan Cave Arts
- Archaeological remains.
- Bamiyan Vally (Natural Landscape)
- Ghulgula City
The participants individually provided a comprehensive site-visiting report and presented it to the class.
Balk province is a well-known place with multicultural aspects and architectural style from 100 CB to the 7th Century. Abu Naser Parsa Khwaja Mosque is an Islamic shrine and Landscape built in the early 16th Century and restored by Aga Khan Trust for Culture Foundation in 2016.[iii]
Several Students (Male only) travelled to Balkh province and visited the Site in 2019. They provide a comprehensive report and share it with the rest of the class.
Other program concepts were knowledge exchange to bring together scholars, professionals, researchers, students, and broader group communities to exchange ideas, evidence, and expertise. Dr. Abdul Wasy Najimi (Conservation Architect, Educator and Senior Advisor) gave two lectures to the participants on November 17th, 2019, in the Social Sciences building. In this context, he explained the relationship between Architecture and Archaeology and the mutual influence regarding cultural Heritage conservation process, Practice, and principles. Roughly 100 participants joined this face-to-face lecture and shared their experiences broadly.
Inviting Afghan professors and professionals from abroad to Kabul University to give lectures and seminars was another approach to exchanging knowledge and principles from different lenses and points of view. Such as Professor Smayzai in 2015 and Professor Kazimi in 2019 from Universities of USA gave lectures on Vernacular and Modern Architectural style in Afghanistan for two semesters.
[i] Sahel, Mahtab. Ceramic in Afghanistan. ECO Cultural Institute. ISSUE 31. VOLUME 9. December 2021.
[ii] Geranpayeh, Sarvy. First, the Taliban, now local planners—Afghanistan's World Heritage site Bamiyan Valley endangered further. The art Newspaper. 2022.
[iii] Aga Khan Trust for Culture Foundation. Aga Khan Historic Cities Program. 2016
[i] Jelika, Jelena. The Largest Standing Stupa in Afghanistan: A short history of the Buddhist Sites in Topdara. Kabul:2020.
[i] Aga Khan Trust for Culture, 2012.
[i] Demirko, Hatice Günseli and Ayoobi, Ahmad Walid. An evaluation of architectural monuments in Afghanistan as in the capital city, Kabul. Journal of designed for resilience. DOI: https://doi.org/10.47818/DRArch.2021.v2i1012
[ii] Rasad. Salma. Afghanistan: Female engineers rebuilt History. Relief- Web. 2017.
Influence, Outcomes, and Effects
- Approximately 2500 students benefited from the project.
- Teaching Building Archaeology in the Department of Architecture increased the level of individuals contributing to cultural heritage conservation projects broadly.
- It increased the number of Conservation practitioners.
- Generated several jobs for the Percipients hired at AKTC, Afghanistan's Institute of Archaeology, Afghanistan’s National Museum, and other Organizations within and at the end of the project,
- Trained professionals, scholars, and researchers on Cultural Heritage and its values and equipped them with the required knowledge, Skills, and experience.
- Gudri Historical Mosque has been conserved and restored as a Historic building for the current and next generations.
- Reuse the Center not only as an Islamic Center but also as Research Center for Cultural Heritage conservation practices in the future.
- Workshops and seminars raised awareness of cultural heritage significance, Vulnerability, Safeguarding and Resilience principles.
- It r
- aised deep understanding among young Architects to effectively contribute to safeguarding tangible heritage (Buildings, Monuments, sites, landscapes.) across the country.
- Enhanced capacity building of young employees and staff in project management, Cultural Heritage Principles, civic engagement, and problem-solving skills.
- Gudri Research Museum was established for researchers to explore and discover the History of the building from a wide range of perspectives in the future.
- Technical drawing, mapping, sketching, measuring the Archaeological findings, building elements, materials, and digging process have been practiced.
- Gender equality has been practiced in all steps and procedures.
Analysis and Lessons Learned
The Republic government of Afghanistan has supported education projects across the country. However, many challenges have been set within four decades of War. The educational project was implemented while the students at Kabul University (Department of Architecture and Archaeology) needed to understand cultural heritage practices such as Significance, Values, vulnerability, hazard, resilience, codes, and principles of heritage protection in all mean. Therefore, Aga Khan Trust for Culture Foundation has been looking to provide the opportunity at the highest level to support the Government's educational system. Furthermore, to broadly deliver participants the most up-to-date knowledge and practical skills.
- Insecurity: side visiting was one of the benefits that the project offered to the participants, but due to insecurity, could not possible to make any trip to the most historical provinces of Afghanistan, such as Ghazni (named as Islamic Capital of Culture and Civilizations by (ISECO) in 2013), Heart province due to insured roads, Ghour province (the Minatare of Jam, UNESCO Heritage Site), Logar Province (Mes-e-Ayank, world Heritage and Culture treasure).
This participatory process developed various perspectives regarding Arts, Culture, religion, History, civic community engagement, education, and innovation in public and academic institutions. Civic engagements in this project were the key to success. Engaging the local community in the restoration process and hiring them as local staff strengthened the process and encouraged locals to support the project entirely.
· The Mosque is considered a good model for restoring historical monuments. Novice engineers had been expected to visit this Mosque and gain excellent and valuable experiences from the subtleties and contemplation of the work of this Mosque.
· Archaeologists involved in pottery research were strongly invited to research the clay pots and helped clarify more aspects of the History of this Mosque.
“A nation is Alive when its culture is Alive.”
 Lourenço, P.B. Conservation of cultural heritage buildings. Methodology and application to case studies, Portugal: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minho.2013.
 Najimi, Abdul Wasay. Studies in Vernacular architecture in Afghanistan: Training in conservation of Historic Structure in Kabul old City, International Journal of Environmental Studies. DOI:10.1080/00207233.2016.1178985.
 Najimi, Abdul Wasy, Teaching materials. Kabul: Aga Khan Trust for Culture.2015.
 Freer Harris, Jennifer and A. Smith, Charlotte. What is Archaeology: How Exploring the Past Enriches the Present. Early Georgia journal. volume 29, number 1. pages: 15-26.
 Janet is S.T., Space, Psyche, Enigma & Symbol, Mishil. Architectural Psychology: Js Publishers, Thrissur, ISBN: 978-1974307715. P.P. 7-12
 Milsted, Nicky, and others. Buildings Archaeology: Resource booklet and activities. England: Council for British Archaeology. 2018. pp.1.
 Aga Khan Trust for Culture website: http://www.akdn.org/aktc.asp
 Arch Dailly website: https://www.archdaily.com/911456/chihilsitoon-garden-project-aga-khan-trust-for-culture
 Qadir, Yaser. Others. Students' Site visiting reports. Kabul: Kabul University. 2020.
 Bjelika, Jelena. The Largest Standing Stupa in Afghanistan: A short history of the Buddhist Sites in Topdara. Kabul:2020.
 Sabet, Mehdi. Kabul Bazaar. An Urban Catalyst for Neighborhood Reconstruction. Zeyad University. Academia: https://www.academia.edu/11323355/Kabul_Bazzar_An_Urban_Catalyst_for_Neighborhood_Reconstruction_
 Aga Khan Trust for Culture, 2012.
 Demirko, Hatice Günseli and Ayoobi, Ahmad Walid. An evaluation of architectural monuments in Afghanistan as in the capital city, Kabul. Journal of designed for resilience. 2021:https://doi.org/10.47818/DRArch.2021.v2i1012
 Rasad. Salma. Afghanistan: Female engineers rebuilt History. Relief- Web. 2017.
 UNESCO world heritage convention.2003.https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/208/
 Geranpayeh, Sarvy. First the Taliban, now local planners: Afghanistan's World Heritage site Bamiyan Valley endangered further. The art Newspaper. 2022.
 Aga Khan Trust for Culture Foundation. Aga Khan Historic Cities Program. Kabul: AKTC. 2016.
 Sahel, Mahtab. Ceramic in Afghanistan. ECO Cultural Institute. ISSUE 31. VOLUME 9. December 2021.
The course syllabus can be found on the website as well.