End to End Auditable Voting Systems

May 2, 2019 Jaskiran Gakhal, Participedia Team
June 18, 2018 Lucy J Parry, Participedia Team
February 14, 2018 Paul Nollen
August 27, 2010 Paul Nollen

End to End (E2E) Auditable Voting is a method allowing voters to trace their ballot through the process to ensure it is counted correctly, and allows anyone to verify that ballots were counted accurately without compromising anonymity.

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Problems and Purpose

An End to End (E2E) Auditable Voting System enables a voter to verify that their vote has been correctly recorded and tallied, without anyone else being able to find out exactly they voted. Verifiable voting systems were originally designed in paper-based ballot systems, but most recently platforms enabling E2E voting use encryption technology to try and ensure both the integrity of an election whilst maintaining voter privacy [1].

Origins and Development

How it Works

Analysis and Lessons Learned

See Also


Online Voting 


[1] Ryan, P., Schneider, S. and Teague, V. (2015). End-to-End Verifiability in Voting Systems, from Theory to Practice. IEEE Privacy and Security. 13(3). Available at:

External Links

An Overview of End-to-End Verifiable Voting Systems: 

Desirable Properties of Voting Systems: 

The Future of Voting: End-to-End Verifiable Internet Voting - Specification and Feasibility Study 

Some Problems with End-to-End Voting  

Efficient End to End Verifiable Electronic Voting Employing Split Value Representations 

Remotegrity: Design and Use of an End-to-End Verifiable Remote Voting System?  

Can End-to-End Verifiable E-Voting be Explained Easily?  


Lead Image: End-to-End Auditable Voting Systems/UMBC