Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Limited is an organization made up of and representing smallholder dairy farmers in India's Gujarat province. Farmers organized into cooperatives, overcoming their previous exploitation and monopoly of the market by corporations.
Mission and Purpose
Gujarati smallholder dairy farmers, once exploited by milk traders, now control one of India’s largest food product businesses.
Origins and Development
Starting in 1945, dairy farmers, with help from the leaders of the Indian Independence movement, started to organize. Through public protests, the farmers gained rights to supply the Bombay Milk Scheme and formally registered as the Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union. Further successes include leasing of part of a government creamery, which secured market access, the lobbying of the government to limit butter imports so that the Union could supply the local market, and the development of other milk products under the “Amul” brand.
In 1973, the Union joined with other cooperatives to form the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Limited (GCMMF), which inherited the Amul brand. Since 1940, dairy farmers have successfully negotiated so that they now receive over 70% of market price of dairy products.
Organizational Structure, Membership, and Funding
The Federation has received funding from multiple sources over the years, including Oxfam and the New Zealand government .
Specializations, Methods and Tools
The initial development of the unions and cooperative utilized protests and strike action and lobbying to apply pressure to apply pressure on the government for action, as well as the formation of cooperatives .
Major Projects and Events
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Analysis and Lessons Learned
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 Koh, H., King, S., Irfan, A., Agarwal, R., Dayal, A. and Brown, A. (n.d.) Shaping Inclusive Market. FSG. Available at: https://www.fsg.org/publications/shaping-inclusive-markets#download-area
The first submission of this Participedia entry was adapted from a research project by the Institute of Development Studies, 'Linking Participation and Economic Advancement’ licensed and reproduced under Creative Commons (CC BY 3.0).