Multi-option Referendums: The Cases of Puerto Rico and Newfoundland
- General Issues
- Governance & Political Institutions
- Specific Topics
- Scope of Influence
- Face-to-Face, Online, or Both
- Types of Interaction Among Participants
- Express Opinions/Preferences Only
- Decision Methods
This case details two multi-option referendums relating to state independence.
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Problems and Purpose
According to the Centre for Policy Studies Research Fellow Matt Qvortrup, "multi-option referendums have often been discussed in relation to referendums on ethnic and national issues...[and] in relation to the referendum on independence or ‘devolution max’ (independence but with the same currency and foreign policy) in Scotland." The cases of Puerto Rico (1967, 1993, and 1998) and Newfoundland (1948) shed light on "in-out-devo max ballots" where the options are to stay attached to the parent country, to file for complete independence, or to opt for independence with the same currency and foreign policy ('devolution max').
Background History and Context
Organizing, Supporting, and Funding Entities
Participant Recruitment and Selection
Methods and Tools Used
What Went On: Process, Interaction, and Participation
Influence, Outcomes, and Effects
Analysis and Lessons Learned
Lead image: CBC, http://bit.ly/2Vu7cpK