The participatory process "Migrazione Condivisa e Sostenibile (MiCS)" (translated: Shared and Sustainable Migration) engaged input from citizens, associations, trade unions, and stakeholders in the immigration sector, for drafting the Region's 2016-2019 migration policy plan.
Problems and Purpose
"Migrazione Condivisa e Sostenibile" (MiCS) (translated: "Shared and Sustainable Migration") is the participatory process that led to the drafting of the "Piano triennale delle politiche per le migrazioni 2016-2019" (transl. the three-year plan of migration policies 2016-2019), as required by regional law n.32 of 4/12/2009. The process follows that of the 2013-2015 Three-Year Immigration Plan, providing for the involvement of all citizens, local associations, trade unions and employers interested in and operating in the immigration sector.
As of 31 December 2015, 122,724 foreign citizens were living in Puglia (Apulia), consisting of 3% of the total population (below the average of Southern Italy: 4.0% and far from the national average: 8.3%). Puglia has 2.4% of all immigrants residing in Italy. Taking into account that migrant flows in their mixed composition (e.g. as asylum seekers and workers) will continue and that, as foreseen by the latest projections, the demographic needs of Italy will persist, it was thought to be appropriate to start considering the newcomers' inclusion in the employment market. This integration can only be achieved by considering, as institutions, both the balance of their qualifications and the most appropriate training and employment strategies to introduce them into the labor market. 
From the point of view of the receiving society, inclusion is often thought of as a peaceful acceptance of subordination; the commonly shared idea is that of inclusion of migrants who accept low-wage jobs and living in particularly difficult conditions from a housing, health, and cultural point of view. An interview with Pope Francis is quoted in which he dictates his strategy towards migrants: 1) save them; 2) welcome them in a dignified manner; and 3) integrate them.
On the basis of these premises, the participatory process starts to define priorities on four main axes: 1) labor policies; 2) housing policies; 3) health policies; 4) integration policies.
Background History and Context
Regional elections were held on 31 May 2015. The election marked an obligatory point of verifying leadership, after 10 years (2005-2015) of Nicola Vendola's administration. National leader of Sinistra Ecologia e Libertà (Left Ecology and Freedom) (SEL), Vendola led while the Democratic Party, not yet dominated by the neo-national current of Matteo Renzi, was still open to coalition alliances on the left. In those years, coalition primaries were introduced, where Vendola stood out in the primary. Throughout his 10 years of governance, Vendola promoted participatory projects and remained open to welcoming immigrants. During his mandate, the regional law n.32 of 4/12/2009 was approved for the participatory planning of policies for the reception and integration of migrants. However, the migration phenomenon in general changed dynamics during that time due to the economic crisis: despite the reduction of regular entries and increase in repatriations, more and more intense migrant landings began to occur.
While Vendola began to withdraw from the political scene, in the 2015 elections the PD candidate, Michele Emiliano (ex-mayor of Bari from 2004 to 2014) won; the right-wing adversary component was not cohesive and the 5 Star Movement was growing (310,300 votes, 18.42%). Emiliano relaunched participation, placing "transparency and participation" as the second point of the government program. Emiliano built the program itself through a participatory electoral campaign curated by his current special adviser (ex-parliamentarian Caterina De Simone), who was in charge of implementing it. The focus is on shared and collective governance of the territory, involving institutions, civil society, and businesses to coordinate territorial policies and co-plan interventions, services, and investments. The law on participation (later approved as Regional Law 28 of 13/7/2017) provides for periodic regional participatory events (Town Meetings and Citizen Meetings) and support for local ones. 
Immigration in particular was conceived as requiring decisive action, in compliance with human rights, so the Puglia Region committed to putting in place a common frame of reference for territorial integration policies, in particular for the inclusion of foreign minors in the school system; the fight against labor exploitation; and inclusion in health services.  In the media, the issue of migrant landings and their exploitation in agricultural work, including from Puglia, became increasingly present. Policies are therefore continuing with targeted actions on various aspects of migration policy. One of these actions focused on exploitation of agricultural workers; it was coordinated with a national agreement between the government, regions, trade organizations in the sector (of 27/5/2016), and then a national law (n. 199 of 29/10 / 2016). Other interventions, with the collaboration of voluntary organizations, try to stem a situation that the Rapporto sull’immigrazione della Regione (Report on Immigration of the Region) from the Dossier of the Centro Studi e Ricerche IDOS (IDOS Study and Research Center) describes as follows:
"[translated from original Italian] The face of the immigrant in Puglia, despite the numbers confirming the prevalence of historical and consolidated origins, belongs to despair, poverty and flight. The reception system is fragmented, which as a system is still defective, and behind names such as case hot-spots, a situation characterized by emergency management takes place. Confused and fragmented interventions have led to the real or apparent closure of some centers that have arisen formally or informally (think of the so-called "ghetto di Rignano"), without adequate proposals, without alternatives or with suggestions that have been lost between bureaucracy and fear of antagonizing the national population. And so everything is muffled, hinted at. In this confusion, interventions are improvised and the results are questionable” 
Among the actions already implemented in 2016, Puglia has the following projects: 
- "La Puglia non tratta" - With 1,289,000 euros, this initiative provides first contact interventions, counselling, identification of victims of trafficking, residential reception, socio-health and psychological assistance, activities aimed at obtaining a residence permit, social integration, working, etc.
- "FAMI Puglia integrante" - This project aims to offer civic linguistic training, for learning the language, civic culture, ways of accessing public and private services, the labor market, contrasting early school leaving, etc.
- Other projects follow with associations and memoranda of understanding with the Apulian universities for the understanding and dissemination of studies on the migratory phenomenon.
Organizing, Supporting, and Funding Entities
Region Puglia - The procedure of the three-year plan for migration policies is managed by the Servizio immigrazione, Sezione sicurezza del cittadino, politiche per le migrazioni e antimafia sociale (Immigration Service, Citizen's Security Section, migration policies and social anti-mafia).
IPRES - Istituto Pugliese di Ricerche Economiche e Sociali (Pugliese Institute of Economic and Social Research) is responsible for providing technical assistance for both the participatory process and the drafting of the Plan.
Participant Recruitment and Selection
The web page dedicated to the MiCS project was open to all; it offered information and enabled registration for the territorial meetings, where discussions were held in thematic tables. The site did not restrict access, and the registration form asked about personal data, the possession of a smartphone, membership in organizations, consent to the use of images, and to receive subsequent materials. Furthermore, registered participants were asked to indicate which table they wanted to participate in: a) integration policies; b) housing policies; c) health policies; d) labor policies. For each table, the available seats and the waiting list were indicated when those available are sold out. Thus, the places were limited but the number of participants is not indicated. The six scheduled meetings were held in the area from 15:30 to 18:30: 1) 9/2/17 in Lecce; 2) 21/2 in Brindisi; 3) 28/2 in Taranto; 4) 7/3 in Bari; 5) 14/3 in Andria; 6) 21/3 in Foggia. There is no further information on the number of participants or on how the meetings are publicized.
Methods and Tools Used
Focus group. They are very common ways to bring together a group of people and start a discussion with them around a desired theme, thanks to the moderator who is called to stimulate the discussion and verify that everyone can express their opinion. Through this methodology, it is possible to collect different opinions, stimulate a comparison between them and potentially reach an agreement. To facilitate the discussion, post-its can be used, which allow those who are not comfortable speaking in public to express their opinions and those who have difficulty summarizing to reflect on what the fundamental concept is they want to express. Generally, as in the case in question, focus groups host a limited number of participants (12-14) and focus on single aspects of a theme.
What Went On: Process, Interaction, and Participation
A program detailing the participatory process is not given, only the list of the six territorial meetings. The reports of the meetings one year after their development are not available (as of 21/2/18). No explanations are given regarding suspensions or delays related to the process.
Influence, Outcomes, and Effects
It is unclear whether the process is over. The meetings declared on the site should have been held a year ago, as there are no reports or explanations (as of 21/2/18).
Analysis and Lessons Learned
This project suffered from a significant lack of transparency in terms of how the process was planned or funded and in failing to provide updates (as of 21/2/18).
 Regione Puglia, MiCS - Migrazione condivisa e sostenibile, Verso il piano triennale delle politiche per le migrazioni, http://mics.regione.puglia.it/cose-mics/#more-128 (released 21/2/18). [DEAD LINK]
 Region, 2015b, p. 7
 Region, 2015b, p. 28.
 Puglia Region (2016a, edited by Angela Martiradonna), Puglia, Rapporto immigrazione 2016, http://mics.regione.puglia.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/IDOS-Puglia-1.pdf (released 21/2/18).
 Puglia Region (2015a), Programma di governo regionale, 22/7, https://www.regione.puglia.it/documents... (released 21/2/18). p. 427.
 Puglia Region (2016b), Azioni progettuali immigrazione Regione Puglia anno 2016, http://mics.regione.puglia.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Azioni-progettuali-Puglia-2016.pdf (released 21 / 2/18).