Data

Location
Indonesia
Scope of Influence
Regional
Links
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/128361468267347740/pdf/665520WP0Box380UBLIC00rekompak0book.pdf
Videos
https://youtu.be/8NyVZB7veSs
Start Date
End Date
Time Limited or Repeated?
A single, defined period of time
Purpose/Goal
Develop the civic capacities of individuals, communities, and/or civil society organizations
Deliver goods & services
Approach
Social mobilization
Leadership development
Co-production in form of partnership and/or contract with private organisations
Spectrum of Public Participation
Empower
Open to All or Limited to Some?
Open to All
Legality
Yes
Facilitators
Yes
Facilitator Training
Trained, Nonprofessional Facilitators
Face-to-Face, Online, or Both
Face-to-Face
Types of Interaction Among Participants
Discussion, Dialogue, or Deliberation
Negotiation & Bargaining
Informal Social Activities
Information & Learning Resources
Site Visits
Type of Organizer/Manager
International Organization
Local Government
Non-Governmental Organization
Type of Funder
International Organization
Staff
Yes
Volunteers
Yes
Evidence of Impact
Yes
Implementers of Change
Lay Public
Stakeholder Organizations
Elected Public Officials

CASE

The Rekompak Programme: Community-Driven Development After the 2004 Tsunami (Aceh, Indonesia)

April 10, 2019 21:09   (UTC +00:00) Scott Fletcher, Participedia Team
April 10, 2019 21:09   (UTC +00:00) Scott Fletcher, Participedia Team
November 28, 2018 16:04   (UTC +00:00) Institute of Development Studies
Location
Indonesia
Scope of Influence
Regional
Links
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/128361468267347740/pdf/665520WP0Box380UBLIC00rekompak0book.pdf
Videos
https://youtu.be/8NyVZB7veSs
Start Date
End Date
Time Limited or Repeated?
A single, defined period of time
Purpose/Goal
Develop the civic capacities of individuals, communities, and/or civil society organizations
Deliver goods & services
Approach
Social mobilization
Leadership development
Co-production in form of partnership and/or contract with private organisations
Spectrum of Public Participation
Empower
Open to All or Limited to Some?
Open to All
Legality
Yes
Facilitators
Yes
Facilitator Training
Trained, Nonprofessional Facilitators
Face-to-Face, Online, or Both
Face-to-Face
Types of Interaction Among Participants
Discussion, Dialogue, or Deliberation
Negotiation & Bargaining
Informal Social Activities
Information & Learning Resources
Site Visits
Type of Organizer/Manager
International Organization
Local Government
Non-Governmental Organization
Type of Funder
International Organization
Staff
Yes
Volunteers
Yes
Evidence of Impact
Yes
Implementers of Change
Lay Public
Stakeholder Organizations
Elected Public Officials

Following the destruction of Aceh’s economy by the 2004 tsunami, the World Bank launched the Rekompak program to give community members the power to direct relief funds and re-development efforts.

Problems and Purpose

Rekompak was a World Bank Community-based Rehabilitation and Reconstruction programme operating in Aceh following the earthquake and tsunami in 2004 and earthquake in 2005.[1] From 2005 to 2012, the programme worked with community members in affected villages to determine rebuilding priorities and allocate fund through a democratic process.[2] The long-term objective of the Rekompak program was to increase the ability of communities to restore adequate living conditions, by building seismic-resistant houses and organizing settlements. This was accomplished through a participatory process which increased community capacity to: 

  • Construct seismic-resistant houses
  • Include disaster risk reduction in Community Settlements Plans (CSP)
  • Develop neighborhood infrastructure in disaster affected areas based on the Community Settlement Plan (CSP)[3]

Background History and Context

Indonesia was hit by a tsunami in 2004 which destroyed about 2/3 of Aceh’s settled areas and left over 700,000 people dead. Then, in 2005 another earthquake hit the area, further adding to the destruction. By the end of 2005, many community members were without homes and most villages needed to be completely rebuilt.[4] 

In April 2005, the Government of Indonesia established the Agency for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias (BRR) to coordinate and oversee the rebuilding of Aceh, as described in Chapter 2. The Multi Donor Fund (MDF), which pooled donor financing, was established around the same time and worked closely with the Agency for Reconstruction. The Rekompak project was approved by the MDF Steering Committee in May 2005. By that time the Rekompak approach was already being piloted by the Ministry of Public Works in collaboration with the Government’s on-going Urban Poverty Program in one of the worse-hit villages in Banda Aceh, Gampong Baro. By December 2005, the Government had identified the communities that would receive assistance through the World Bank’s Rekompak program.[5] For its part, the World Bank adopted a Community-Driven Development strategy as a bottom-up approach to reconstruction and funding management. Rekompak was based on the World Banks’ ongoing community driven development programmes in the country, adapted to meet post-disaster recovery needs.[6] 

Organizing, Supporting, and Funding Entities

Rekompak was delivered by the World Bank and modelled on the Government of Indonesia’s community driven development programs: the Kecamatan Development Project and the Urban Poverty Project. Rekompak drew from these experiences and both projects helped recruit and train facilitators for the programme.[7]  

Rekompak was supported by the Government of Indonesia whose Ministry of Public Works worked closely with the project staff. The program was funded through grants from the Multi-Donor Trust Funds for Aceh and Nias/North-Sumatra (MDF) and Java Reconstruction Fund (JRF) which pooled approximately US$655 million from 15 international donors and contributed close to 10 percent of the overall reconstruction funds for Aceh and Nias.[8] According to the World Bank, “grant funds were deposited straight into community accounts in installments. The grants required that at least 30 percent of the members of various project teams were women.”[9]

Participant Recruitment and Selection

A Damage and Loss Assessment was carried out by the Government of Indonesia after the disasters in Aceh to determine which communities were eligible for reconstruction. Criteria considered included: 

  • Degree of physical damage to houses and infrastructure 
  • Size of population remaining 
  • Willingness of community to implement community-based settlement rehabilitation and reconstruction
  • Willingness to enter into an agreement with local government F
  • Reconstruction commitments by other NGOs or donors 
  • Number of housing units in need of reconstruction or rehabilitation that do not have rebuilding commitment from another donor 
  • Ease of accessibility and coordination
  • Availability of funds

In December 2005, the Government selected 100 urban and 100 rural villages in Aceh from among the most severely affected by the tsunami and earthquakes for MDF Rekompak reconstruction or rehabilitation.

During the implementation phase, the community-based rehabilitation and reconstruction process was open to all residents of the targeted communities. Participants were organized into groups of 10 families and assigned the building of 10 houses. A task force of two technical experts, one or two social facilitators (including a community development specialist), one financial specialist, and four construction supervisors assist about 5-6 housing groups.[10]

Methods and Tools Used

At the core of the Rekompak program was the process of Community Settlement Planning (CSP). CSP is an inclusive process that encourages greater involvement of marginalized groups in the reconstruction. For example, women and the poor are given greater voice in identifiying and prioritizing projects that impact the whole community as a result of their involvement in the planning process. CSP has also led to a higher degree of beneficiary satisfaction and community ownership of the planning process and new assets. A broader range of community members are exposed to disaster preparedness strategies through the planning process, which also contributes to the project’s aim of rebuilding stronger and more resilient communities. Tools and techniques included mapping, community asset assessment, and training in implementation and post-development monitoring.[11]

What Went on: Process, Interaction, and Participation 

Overview

The Rekompak community-driven approach placed responsibility for rebuilding settlements in the hands of the communities. Groups of 10- 15 families were formed to take charge of rebuilding their own houses. The groups decided in what order to distribute funding to each family and all members of the group contributed to the rebuilding process. A key component of the approach is the development of a community spatial plan by each village to serve as the guiding document for rebuilding. Village teams were formed to rebuild priority infrastructure. Facilitators trained by the Ministry of Public Works were assigned to help communities prepare and implement their projects. Grants from the MDF and JRF were deposited directly into community accounts. Funds were released in Installments based on progress as defined by agreed-upon milestones.

Land Use Planning

In Aceh, much of the land had been passed down to heirs through traditional systems, often without formal land titles. In these cases, neighbors were called on to verify land ownership. If the process was satisfactorily completed, land deeds were issued. Because so many people had perished, sometimes owners or their heirs could not be found. Rekompak developed a unique 3-step community adjudication process to deal with such situations:

Step 1: Community driven Adjudication (CdA) Community members participate in creating a map identifying land boundaries and ownership. 

Step 2: Measurement and Mapping Based upon maps created through the CDA process, the National Land Agency (Badan Pertanahan Nasional or BPN) creates a community land map, allows communities to comment, and settles objections or issues through village discussions or a provincial complaints team. 

Step 3: Issuance of Certificates The BPN issues land certificates naming owners or joint owners. In special circumstances (when the land had to go to an underage heir, or an heir had not yet been identified), temporary land documents could be issued.

Community Settlement Planning

The Community Settlement Planning process is the heart of Rekompak. Beneficiaries are the experts in terms of knowing what their community was like before the disaster and the reconstructed community they envision. The planning process is inclusive, aiming to involve all community members, including women, giving them a role and voice in planning and decision-making. Rekompak’s Community Settlement Plans are spatial plans that are developed by beneficiary communities through a participatory process involving a range of activities that include dissemination of information about Rekompak activities, setting up of beneficiary groups and supervisory committees and preparation of a Community Settlement Plan. When plans have been completed and approved the final step of the process leads to disbursement of the first tranche of funding so that the rebuilding can begin. Below is a brief explanation of a Rekompak community planning process used in Indonesia. It should be noted that the process continually evolves and must be adapted to specific situations. Some steps may take place concurrently and in most cases include housing and community infrastructure.[12] 

1. Information Dissemination 

Information dissemination and awareness building for affected communities was organized by village trustee boards with assistance from facilitators. Village trustee boards were initially set up by the Urban Poverty Program, and Rekompak relied on these existing bodies for information dissemination where they existed. Using existing mechanisms allows for more rapid and efficient project implementation. Other village management/ leadership structures may also be used or a new body can be set up when existing structures are weak or unavailable.[13] 

2. Formation of Volunteer Committees 

Volunteer committees included a Planning Committee, an Implementation Committee, and an Operations and Maintenance Committee. The committees were not necessarily set up at the same time and were phased in as required. Other committees, such as a Procurement Committee, were also set up as needed. Volunteer community representatives served on and led the committees.[14] 

3. Community Surveys 

Community representatives conducted housing and infrastructure self-surveys with assistance from facilitators and in coordination with local government. Surveys included identification and verification of beneficiaries and finalization of the list of beneficiaries. Land ownership was also confirmed at this time and land deeds were provided by the relevant government agency. The findings were presented to the village trustees and community to be agreed upon before the physical rebuilding process began.[15]

4. Formation of Housing Groups and Committees 

Rebuilding under Rekompak was organized by community housing groups composed of approximately 10 families living in close proximity. Members of the group were usually neighbors or relatives who were willing to work together to rebuild their settlement. Volunteers from the group formed a committee composed of a chair, a secretary, a treasurer and household representatives, usually one per household. Together with its household members, the committee decided on investments, procured materials, controlled funds, assisted with construction, supervised accounts for funds expended and reported on progress. Each committee reported to the village trustees. [16]

5. Community Settlement Plans Prepared 

The Community Settlement Plan developed through a participatory process became the guiding document for how physical rebuilding took place. Spatial plans were prepared and communities agreed on priority village infrastructure and facilities to be rebuilt. Systems and procedures for operation and maintenance were also established. The Plan identified areas prone to potential hazards so that action could be taken to avoid, or at least mitigate, possible future disasters. If land and property demarcations had to be established as was the case in some areas in Aceh and Java, this was also included in the planning process. Every Rekompak village had its own Community Settlement Plan, based on its unique needs, conditions and potential. Rekompak facilitators provided assistance in all aspects of developing the plans.[17] 

6. Community Settlement Plans Submitted for Approval to Village Trustees 

Once completed, Community Settlement Plans were submitted for approval to village trustees. After the facilitators and trustees verified and approved the plans (there could be revisions required at each stage), the plan was submitted to the Project Management Unit (PMU) for approval. Once plans were approved, funding to proceed was provided. Building began when the first funding tranche was disbursed. This launched the process that eventually led to the homeowner receiving approval to occupy his or her home.[18]

Influence, Outcomes, and Effects

The Rekompak project rehabilitated or reconstructed a total of approximately 15,000 houses in Aceh. When an earthquake hit the island of Java a little more than a year after the Rekompak program had started in Aceh, the Government immediately identified the Rekompak model as its main vehicle for delivering housing assistance. The lessons learned from Rekompak in Aceh informed the design of the project in Java, adapting existing project design and organizational structure to specific local needs. In this way, JRF Rekompak evolved to become more efficient in delivering reconstruction support, with a streamlined approach that enabled speedier implementation. The combined efforts of all agencies involved in Rekompak type reconstruction in Java resulted in approximately 150,000 permanent houses within a year after the disaster, which was unprecedented in terms of speed and coverage. Two years after the disaster, the number of completed houses reached 300,000, making this one of the fastest housing reconstruction projects in the world.[19]

According to George Soraya, World Bank Task Team Leader for Rekompak, “Rekompak is a community driven approach and differs from approaches in which contractors are hired to do the rebuilding. For example, say we were building 15,000 houses. One option would be to get 15 contractors and for each of them to build 1,000 houses. In that case there would be 15 contractors as active participants of reconstruction and 15,000 passive beneficiaries. In the Rekompak approach that is not the way to do it. The best thing is to have 15,000 people, each one of them working on their own home. That is Rekompak.”[20]

Analysis and Lessons Learned 

Advantages of the community-led approach include: 

  • Social cohesion is fostered when people from different communities work together to organize relocation and reconstruction (particularly helpful in post-conflict contexts)
  • High levels of flexibility and accountability control for owners over reconstruction
  • The project may contribute more strongly to reactivation of the local economy[21]

While the start-up phase can appear long, as reconstruction only begins once communities are mobilized, beneficiaries are identified and facilitators are in place; on the other hand, communities begin to see benefits from the process itself, and not only once houses are built.[22] The quality of women’s participation was a challenge, due to cultural norms and other demands on their time. Lessons are that prescriptive measures are needed to address this; special attention is also needed to identify the specific needs of vulnerable or marginalized groups. Clear, simple systems, procedures and guidelines and good communication facilitate understanding of the process by all.[23]

See Also 

Collaborative Planning

References 

[1] World Bank, Adapting Community Driven Approaches for Post-Disaster Recovery: Experiences from Indonesia (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2012), 10-12, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/587901468254067145/pdf/838990NWP0Box382108B00PULBIC00no1.pdf

[2] World Bank, REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters (Online: The Secretariat of the Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias and the Java Reconstruction Fund, 2012), 17-18, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/128361468267347740/pdf/665520WP0Box380UBLIC00rekompak0book.pdf.

[3] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 74. 

[4] Adapting Community Driven Approaches for Post-Disaster Recovery, 10-12. 

[5] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 79.

[6] “Indonesia: Community-Based Settlement Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Project,” The World Bank, April 16, 2012, http://www.worldbank.org/en/results/2012/04/16/indonesia-community-based-settlement-rehabilitation-and-reconstruction-project-rekompak.

[7] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 86.

[8] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 8. 

[9] “Indonesia: Community-Based Settlement Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Project.”

[10] George Soraya, “Indonesia: Turning to Unity for Rebuilding Communities after Natural Disasters,” The World Bank Blog: East Asia & Pacific on the rise, August 18, 2016, http://blogs.worldbank.org/eastasiapacific/indonesia-turning-unity-rebuilding-communities-after-natural-disasters

[11] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 60; 90.  

[12] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 90-92.  

[13] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 92. 

[14] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 92. 

[15] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 92.

[16] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 93.

[17] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 93.

[18] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 93.

[19] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 104.

[20] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 105.

[21] REKOMPAK Rebuilding Indonesia’s Communities After Disasters, 106.

[22] Adapting Community Driven Approaches for Post-Disaster Recovery, 57. 

[23] Adapting Community Driven Approaches for Post-Disaster Recovery, 60-63.

External Links

The World Bank in Indonesia: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/indonesia

World Bank Panel, 10 Years After the Tsunami in Aceh: Rebuilding Better from Disaster: http://live.worldbank.org/10-years-after-aceh-tsunami

Notes

Lead image: JRF Secretariat, “Rekompak facilitators and members of a World Bank supervision mission discuss layout, progress, and challenges of a community settlement plan,” http://bit.ly/2WUvGZA

The first submission of this Participedia entry was adapted from a research project by the Institute of Development Studies, 'Linking Participation and Economic Advancement’ licensed and reproduced under Creative Commons (CC BY 3.0).
Original source: https://www.eldis.org/keyissues/mapping-participation-economic-advancement