In 2014 the Regional Council of Sardinia approved the research project aimed at identifying and analyzing rural landscapes according to current needs, also in relation to operational development programs, municipal planning acts and sector plans.
Problems and purpose
With Resolution no. 39/18 of 10 October 2014, the Regional Council approved the research project aimed at defining and implementing a series of actions that satisfy the need to analyze and identify rural landscapes according to current needs, also in relation to operational development programs , municipal planning acts and sector plans.
The project is inspired by principles such as: "the containment of land use" and "the protection of the rural territory".
Deliberation no.39 / 18 therefore initiates scientific, analytical and propositive research on the identification of rural landscapes, with the aim of safeguarding them, preserving their identity and peculiarities and, last but not least, supporting regional structures involved in landscape planning and verification of its implementation at the local level.
In December 2016, the Regional Council approved the results of the research project with Resolution no. coordinated by the Landscape Observatory.
On 27 November 2017 the DGR n. 45/19 mandates the Regional Structure to proceed with the completion of the research project for the knowledge and identification of rural landscapes.
History and background
The Urban Planning Observatory and the quality of the landscape, established with the & nbsp; DGR 50/22 of 5 December 2006 & nbsp; and according to the indications of & nbsp; LR 8/2004 , takes shape following what is indicated by the European Landscape Convention which invites Local Governments to commit themselves to the landscape front to undertake research and studies aimed at identifying landscapes and analyzing their specificities. According to the Convention, the commitment must be distributed among the various levels of government, from the national to the local one, inserting the & nbsp; perception & nbsp; of the populations as an innovative and fundamental element of knowledge of the contents and landscapes of the territory, so as to analyze them more effectively the characteristics, dynamics and pressures that modify them, follow their transformations and evaluate the landscapes identified. 
The DGR n. 45/19 of November 27, 2017 mandated the regional structure to proceed with the completion of the research project for the knowledge and identification of rural landscapes aimed at recognizing the historical, cultural and settlement components of rural landscapes, according to the implementation methods identified in the previous resolutions. GR n. 39/18 of 10.10.2014 and no. 36/9 of 14.07.2015. 
Resolution 45/19 provides in addition to the involvement of the Departments of Civil Engineering, Environmental and Architecture and of Social Sciences of the University of Cagliari and the Department of Agriculture of the University of Sassari, the involvement of the Regional Ethnographic Institute for the intangible aspects of ancient culture also that of ANCI, in order to promote and encourage the active participation of local authorities, communities and individual citizens in the planning phase and research.
This participatory process was structured through a path of listening to the administrators and technicians of the local authorities of Sardinia, the local communities and stakeholders who actively participate in the decision-making phase and is aimed at supporting the research project of the Universities aimed at recognizing the historical, cultural and settlement characteristics of the rural landscapes of Sardinia, so as to expand the background knowledge of landscapes, useful for the government of territories recognized as being of significant interest to the community, according to a program of territorial meetings. 
Organizational, support and financing entities< p> Autonomous Region of Sardinia - Landscape Observatory is the coordinator of the project. In fact, its functions include study, research and control activities relating to monitoring the quality of the landscape, identifying the factors that determine and condition its transformation. It reports to the General Directorate of Territorial Urban Planning and Building Supervision which in turn reports to the Department of Local Authorities, Finance and Urban Planning. The service has 8 collaborators.
The General Directorate of Urban Planning Territorial and Building Supervision has stipulated specific institutional collaboration agreements with:
- University of Cagliari, Department of Civil, Environmental and Architecture Engineering (DICAAR ) and of Social Sciences and Institutions (DISSI).
- University of Sassari, Department of Natural and Territorial Sciences (Dip Net) and Department of Agriculture (DiA)
The Board also decided to involve the Regional Ethnographic Institute (ISRE ) enriching the study with the framework of the relationships that have taken place over the centuries between the population and the landscapes.
The regional agency FORESTAS , established with the regional forest law of 2017, has also collaborated with the development and enhancement of the forest heritage and fauna of the regional territory, as well as the creation and dissemination of a culture that contemplates naturalistic, historical and cultural values typical of Sardinia & nbsp; and the ANCI (National Association of Italian Municipalities). 
Selection and recruitment of participants
Public meetings . 10 meetings were organized throughout the region, from 23/7/2018 to 17/12/2018. An invitation is available for the meetings, along with the program. The meetings began at 10:00 in the municipal halls or conference rooms of civic centers. The invitation via formal letter was sent to all the mayors and administrators, the presidents of the LAGs (EU leaders), the heads of the technical offices, the environment offices, the network of technical professions, professional associations and "stakeholders all ”(Link 1 - Florinas, invitation). Signed by the councilor Cristiano Erriu. The program shows that after registration there was the introduction (edited by the Observatory), to the institutional greetings of the regional councilor and the president of ANCI, 4 or 5 scheduled interventions by the professors of the universities involved. From 11:45 to 13:00 a debate would open with free interventions.  & nbsp;
No reports, minutes or statistics on participation in events are available.
Methods and tools used
Public meetings. < / strong> These are classic conferences with several speakers, and prevalence of professionals, authorities and actors, in the audience. At the end of the interventions, usually supported by slides, a fraction of the time remains for free interventions. In this case, about an hour out of 3 hours and thirty minutes. & Nbsp;
What happened: process, interaction and participation
After a study phase compiled by the researchers of various disciplines concerning the rural landscape of Sardinia, therefore agriculture, territorial planning, engineering and architecture, social and political sciences, ethnography, history and forestry techniques, various public meetings were organized, to present the work carried out, also open to debate. However, no partial or definitive reports are available on the participatory aspect, which, despite being contemplated and declared, has not been reported.
This participatory contribution should have provided completeness to the developed framework, and offered suggestions for targeted intervention. the identification and protection of the landscape as a strategic value for the expansion of the functions of the farm, rural living, tourism; transforming a positive externality, that is, the production of landscape values, into a conscious goal. For this, says prof. Meloni, and Dr. Erika Sois of DISSA, who would need a pact between custodian communities, multifunctional farmers, local operators in various capacities, in order to make explicit this value, making the actors aware of it and finding advantages in improving its quality and methods. of life of populations .
Influence, results and effects
It is not at all clear how much participatory contributions have brought to the study, also because it is not possible to detect their existence. Only the dossier relating to the first geomorphological, geographical, economic-physical phase is available and there are no conclusions relating to the second part, despite the fact that a year has passed since the last meeting. No explanations are given on the conclusions or possible interruptions of the project.
Analysis and lessons learned
Without continuity in communication and therefore transparency is it possible to talk about participation?
 Sardinia Region, Landscape Observatory, rural landscape project, http: //www.sardegnaterritorio. it / j / v / 2420? s = 46 & amp; v = 9 & amp; c = 14332 & amp; es = 6603 & amp; tb = 14307 & amp; esp = 1 & amp; b = 1 (ril. 14/11/19). < / p>
 Region of Sardinia, Landscape Observatory, http://www.sardegnaterritorio.it/j/v/2419?s=46&v=9&c= 14308 & amp; na = 1 & amp; n = 10 & amp; tb = 14307 & amp; esp = 1 & amp; b = 1 (ril. 11/14/19). & Nbsp;
 Melons, B ., Sois, E., Paesa rural days of Sardinia, Participatory process, presentation of 27/9/18, Villanovaforru, http: // www .sardegnaterritorio.it / documents / 46_649_20181005115850.pdf (ril. 14/11/19). & Nbsp;