Data

General Issues
Environment
Specific Topics
Climate Change
Location
Kalundborg
4400
Denmark
Scope of Influence
Multinational
Start Date
End Date
Time Limited or Repeated?
A single, defined period of time
Purpose/Goal
Make, influence, or challenge decisions of government and public bodies
Develop the civic capacities of individuals, communities, and/or civil society organizations
Approach
Co-governance
Spectrum of Public Participation
Collaborate
Total Number of Participants
350
Open to All or Limited to Some?
Limited to Only Some Groups or Individuals
Recruitment Method for Limited Subset of Population
Random Sample
General Types of Methods
Deliberative and dialogic process
General Types of Tools/Techniques
Facilitate dialogue, discussion, and/or deliberation
Propose and/or develop policies, ideas, and recommendations
Recruit or select participants
Specific Methods, Tools & Techniques
Citizens' Summit
Deliberation
Legality
Yes
Facilitators
Yes
Facilitator Training
Trained, Nonprofessional Facilitators
Face-to-Face, Online, or Both
Face-to-Face
Types of Interaction Among Participants
Discussion, Dialogue, or Deliberation
Information & Learning Resources
Written Briefing Materials
Expert Presentations
Video Presentations
Decision Methods
Voting
Communication of Insights & Outcomes
Public Hearings/Meetings
Traditional Media
Primary Organizer/Manager
The Danish Board of Technology Foundation
Type of Organizer/Manager
International Organization
Non-Governmental Organization
Local Government
Funder
European Union
Type of Funder
International Organization
Evidence of Impact
Yes
Types of Change
Changes in public policy
Changes in people’s knowledge, attitudes, and behavior
Implementers of Change
Elected Public Officials
Formal Evaluation
Yes
Evaluation Report Documents
ArticlebyBjrnandSren.pdf
Climate Adaptation Governance in Cities and Regions - 2016 - Knieling - Influence of citizens and stakeholders in shaping.pdf

CASE

Citizen Summit on Climate Change: Impacts, Costs and Adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region

6 février 2024 Patrick L Scully, Participedia Team
25 septembre 2022 Joyce Chen
23 septembre 2022 jennahong
18 septembre 2022 jennahong
21 octobre 2020 Jaskiran Gakhal, Participedia Team
9 septembre 2020 Joyce Chen
General Issues
Environment
Specific Topics
Climate Change
Location
Kalundborg
4400
Denmark
Scope of Influence
Multinational
Start Date
End Date
Time Limited or Repeated?
A single, defined period of time
Purpose/Goal
Make, influence, or challenge decisions of government and public bodies
Develop the civic capacities of individuals, communities, and/or civil society organizations
Approach
Co-governance
Spectrum of Public Participation
Collaborate
Total Number of Participants
350
Open to All or Limited to Some?
Limited to Only Some Groups or Individuals
Recruitment Method for Limited Subset of Population
Random Sample
General Types of Methods
Deliberative and dialogic process
General Types of Tools/Techniques
Facilitate dialogue, discussion, and/or deliberation
Propose and/or develop policies, ideas, and recommendations
Recruit or select participants
Specific Methods, Tools & Techniques
Citizens' Summit
Deliberation
Legality
Yes
Facilitators
Yes
Facilitator Training
Trained, Nonprofessional Facilitators
Face-to-Face, Online, or Both
Face-to-Face
Types of Interaction Among Participants
Discussion, Dialogue, or Deliberation
Information & Learning Resources
Written Briefing Materials
Expert Presentations
Video Presentations
Decision Methods
Voting
Communication of Insights & Outcomes
Public Hearings/Meetings
Traditional Media
Primary Organizer/Manager
The Danish Board of Technology Foundation
Type of Organizer/Manager
International Organization
Non-Governmental Organization
Local Government
Funder
European Union
Type of Funder
International Organization
Evidence of Impact
Yes
Types of Change
Changes in public policy
Changes in people’s knowledge, attitudes, and behavior
Implementers of Change
Elected Public Officials
Formal Evaluation
Yes
Evaluation Report Documents
ArticlebyBjrnandSren.pdf
Climate Adaptation Governance in Cities and Regions - 2016 - Knieling - Influence of citizens and stakeholders in shaping.pdf

BaltCICA (Climate Change: Impacts, Costs, and Adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region” was a project that ran from February 2009 to January 2012. It aimed to develop and implement strategies to adapt to climate change within the Baltic Sea Region [1].

Problems and Purpose

Given the global climate crisis, BaltCICA’s main goals were to assess the impact of climate change on the environment and on local development opportunities, and to test and implement concrete plans for adaptation in close collaboration with local and regional authorities [2]. The project comprised 13 case studies that each had a unique geographical and thematic focus, such as metropolitan planning and adaptation strategies (Hamburg, Tampere, Helsinki and its Metropolitan Region), groundwater and climate change (Hanko, Klaipėda and Falster), the environment (North Vizdeme and Karklė) as well as scenario development and citizen participation (Kalundborg, Riga, Klaipėda, Tampere and Hamburg). The project also had a transnational approach. The EU’s White Paper “Adapting to Climate Change: Towards a European Framework for Action” emphasizes the need for an adaptation strategy at the EU level as well as solidarity among member states [3]. With this in mind, the project facilitated information exchange between the different case studies, and successful methods were transferred from pilot studies to other case studies that faced similar challenges [4]. BaltCICA can be seen as the foundation for the creation of an informal forum for pan-Baltin cooperation on climate change response [5].


Background History and Context

Regarding climate change policy in the region, there were some concrete adaptation measures in place before BaltCICA. However, there was a great deal of variation between the nations that had adopted a National Adaptation Strategy prior and those who had not [6]. Regarding citizen involvement in such policies, the Danish Board of Technology had organized a global citizens’ consultation on climate change in 2009. World Wide Views on Global Warming invited 4,000 citizens from 38 countries to gather in their respective nations and discuss policy recommendations [7].


Organizing, Supporting, and Funding Entities

BaltCICA was co-financed by the European Union’s European Regional Development Fund and European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument under the overarching Baltic Sea Region Programme. Partnerships varied from case study to case study and were a mixture of climate change and geological experts, local and municipal governments, and in the case of the Danish Board of Technology for the Kalundborg case study, experts in citizen participation. The full list of partners is as follows [8]:

Finland: Geological Survey of Finland (GTK, lead partner); Aalto University/Centre for Urban and Regional Studies (Aalto/YTK); Hanko Water- and Wastewater works; Union of the Baltic Cities – Commission on Environment (UBC); Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY); City of Helsinki; City of Tampere

Estonia: Geological Survey of Estonia (EGK)

Latvia: University of Latvia; North Vidzeme Biosphere reserve

Lithuania: Klaipeda City Municipality; Municipality of the Klaipeda District; Environmental Centre for Administration and Technology (ECAT) Lithuania; Vilnius University; Lithuanian Geological Survey under the Ministry of Environment

Denmark: Kalundborg Municipality; Danish Board of Technology (DBT); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS)

Sweden: Nordregio

Norway: Norwegian Institute for Urban and Region Research (NIBR)

Germany: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW); HafenCity University/Urban Planning and Regional Development (HCU); EUCC- The Coastal Union Germany; Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)


Participant Recruitment and Selection

Kalundborg was the only case study in BaltCICA that used a citizen summit. In Kalundborg, an initial 7,000 randomly selected citizens were invited to participate at the citizen summit. From the positive responses, 500 were chosen. Out of those, some members had to drop out of the project for various reasons, putting the final count at 350 citizens. Given the sample size, it is likely that the group was representative of the diversity of age, gender, and geographical residency in the municipality [9].


Methods and Tools Used

Methods

Kalundborg used a two-pronged approach to deliberative decision-making. The first prong was a scenario workshop. Local stakeholders and politicians were presented with possible climate and flooding scenarios for the area and asked to develop a range of potential solutions, which were then presented at the second prong, a citizen summit. At the summit, citizens were given the opportunity to discuss and vote on the various solutions.

This approach was chosen to balance the perspectives of local stakeholders with citizens. It was felt that stakeholders could contribute knowledge and innovate solutions, but could be biased towards cost-protective solutions. On the other hand, it was felt that citizens with no personal stakes in the specific area would be more likely to prioritize adaptation over being business-friendly [10].


Tools

The citizens summit made use of the following tools [11]:

  • Citizens were provided with information material in order to provide citizens with the background information necessary to discuss the questions posed
  • Citizens were broken up into small groups in order to facilitate deeper conversations and more intensive participation
  • Citizens’ discussions were led by trained facilitators and moderators
  • Citizens voted anonymously using electronic voting equipment


What Went On: Process, Interaction, and Participation

The summit took place March 5, 2011. Prior to the summit, the organizers developed a set of 19 questions for the citizens to discuss. The questions were crafted to reflect the most pertinent political decisions that citizens would need to make in order to develop an adaptation strategy. The questions were divided into 6 thematic subjects:

  1. Personal experiences with flooding and demographic data
  2. Vulnerable rural areas (such as the case study area)
  3. Kalundborg City
  4. Dividing responsibilities between citizens and authorities
  5. General climate adaptation strategy
  6. Involvement of citizens in planning for climate adaptation

The organizers also developed a 32-page information booklet for the citizens. It aimed to provide both facts and a neutral overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the different solutions on the table. It was sent to the participants before the summit, but the questions were not released in advance to prevent participants from deciding how they would vote before deliberating with other citizens.

At the summit, the 350 citizens were divided into tables of 5-7. They were led by a head facilitator and group moderators. Each thematic session was introduced by the facilitator and an invited speaker, who gave a short presentation. During the session, citizens engaged in moderated discussions for 35-75 minutes, depending on the theme, and then voted on alternative answers to the 19 questions.

The results of the summit were presented to city council members and taken into account when developing the adaptation strategy for the municipality [12].


Influence, Outcomes, and Effects

The participatory process succeeded in influencing the Kalundborg adaptation plan to incorporate the citizens’ final policy recommendations. The plan also states that the municipality will work closely with stakeholders and citizens to implement these measures. Officials and politicians also explicitly stated that certain controversial issues, such as whether pensioners’ summerhouses would be protected and how to adjudicate between the protection of farmland and the development of wetland areas, were only included in the plan because they were discussed in the summit. Overall, the process raised awareness of climate change amongst stakeholders, citizens, officials, and politicians and created a feeling of joint responsibility in tackling climate change [13].


Analysis and Lessons Learned

Kalundborg demonstrated the importance of citizen participation in creating sensitive and urgent policy. The citizen summit increased democratic legitimacy and transparency, which in turn made it easier for politicians to create measures that were both informed by local knowledge, interests, and values, as well as perceived as credible and sustainable. Since citizens had been involved in a fair and open process, it gave the municipality a broader mandate to make decisions about long-term and potentially controversial measures [14].

There are two key design features in the citizen summit that contributed to the success of Kalundborg. The first is that stakeholders and citizens were involved before the municipality began to draw up the plan, and not after, meaning they had greater opportunity to have genuine impact. The second is that the decision-makers (ie. members of the Committee for Engineering and Environment) were involved in the scenario workshop phase as well as the citizen summit. They were asked for their input when drafting the 19 questions and were invited to be facilitators, which increased their sense of engagement and trust in the process [15].


See Also

References

[1] BaltCICA. "BaltCICA: Climate Change Impacts, Costs and Adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region." BaltCICA. https://www.ubc-sustainable.net/sites/default/files/publications/baltcica_final_report_version_1_080512.pdf.

[2] The Danish Board of Technology. "BaltCICA-Climate Change: Impacts, Costs and Adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region." Tekno.dk. https://tekno.dk/project/baltcica-climagte-changes-impacts-costs-and-adaption-in-the-baltic-sea-region/?lang=en.

[3] BaltCICA. "BaltCICA: Climate Change Impacts, Costs and Adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region." BaltCICA. https://www.ubc-sustainable.net/sites/default/files/publications/baltcica_final_report_version_1_080512.pdf.

[4] Sustainable Cities Commission. "Climate Change: Impacts, Costs and Adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region." Union of the Baltic Cities. https://www.ubc-sustainable.net/project/climate-change-impacts-costs-and-adaptation-baltic-sea-region.

[5] BaltCICA. "BaltCICA: Climate Change Impacts, Costs and Adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region." BaltCICA. https://www.ubc-sustainable.net/sites/default/files/publications/baltcica_final_report_version_1_080512.pdf.

[6] BaltCICA. "BaltCICA: Climate Change Impacts, Costs and Adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region." BaltCICA. https://www.ubc-sustainable.net/sites/default/files/publications/baltcica_final_report_version_1_080512.pdf.

[7] WWViews. "World Wide Views on Global Warming." Danish Board of Technology. http://globalwarming.wwviews.org/files/summary_191109.pdf.

[8] BaltCICA. "BaltCICA: Climate Change Impacts, Costs and Adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region." BaltCICA. https://www.ubc-sustainable.net/sites/default/files/publications/baltcica_final_report_version_1_080512.pdf.

[9] Bjørn Bedsted & Søren Gram. "Participatory Climate Change Adaptation in Kalundborg, Denmark." Climate Change Adaptation in Pracitce: From Strategy Development to Implementation. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288717784_Participatory_Climate_Change_Adaptation_in_Kalundborg_Denmark.

[10] Bjørn Bedsted & Søren Gram. "Participatory Climate Change Adaptation in Kalundborg, Denmark." Climate Change Adaptation in Pracitce: From Strategy Development to Implementation. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288717784_Participatory_Climate_Change_Adaptation_in_Kalundborg_Denmark.[11] Bjørn Bedsted & Søren Gram. "Participatory Climate Change Adaptation in Kalundborg, Denmark." Climate Change Adaptation in Pracitce: From Strategy Development to Implementation. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288717784_Participatory_Climate_Change_Adaptation_in_Kalundborg_Denmark.

[12] Bjørn Bedsted & Søren Gram. "Participatory Climate Change Adaptation in Kalundborg, Denmark." Climate Change Adaptation in Pracitce: From Strategy Development to Implementation. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288717784_Participatory_Climate_Change_Adaptation_in_Kalundborg_Denmark.

[13] Søren Gram, Bjørn Bedsted, and Andreas Hastrup Clemmensen. "Influence of citizens and stakeholders in shaping adaptation policy - opportunities and barriers." Climate Adaptation Governance in Cities and Regions: Theoretical Fundamentals and Practical Evidence.

[14] Bjørn Bedsted & Søren Gram. "Participatory Climate Change Adaptation in Kalundborg, Denmark." Climate Change Adaptation in Pracitce: From Strategy Development to Implementation. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288717784_Participatory_Climate_Change_Adaptation_in_Kalundborg_Denmark.

[15] Søren Gram, Bjørn Bedsted, and Andreas Hastrup Clemmensen. "Influence of citizens and stakeholders in shaping adaptation policy - opportunities and barriers." Climate Adaptation Governance in Cities and Regions: Theoretical Fundamentals and Practical Evidence.


External Links

Notes

Data was sourced from OECD (2020), Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions: Catching the Deliberative Wave, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/339306da-en