Collaborative design methodology covers a broad range of participatory engagement techniques which involve citizens in each stage of the process of a project's drafting and implementation.
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Problems and Purpose
Collaborative design covers a broad range of methods and techniques used to engage citizen participants in a project's design process from the beginning. Collaborative design is a broad term that may refer to more specific methods like collaborative planning, events that follow a collaborative design such as hackathons, or approaches to governance and policymaking.
Many methods of participatory governance only involve citizens in one aspect of the process. For example, officials may consult citizens before designing and implementing a project or citizens may be consulted after a range of alternate designs have been drafted. Collaborative design on the other hand, typically refers to methods that include citizens from the beginning - during the initial drafting process - until the end - sometimes continuing their engagement after the project's finalization.
Origins and Development
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Participant Recruitment and Selection
Participant selection will depend on the kind of design project and the chosen combination of methods and techniques. However, since the method is quite time and resource-intensive, participant selection is usually targeted or drawn from a representative sample. For example, organizers using collaborative design for the redevelopment of an urban area may only select from among those living near to the area or who are directly affected by the construction.
Depending on the specific method or project, collaborative design may involve engaging multiple stakeholders, as in collaborative planning, or citizens and other actors such as researchers, as in community-based participatory research.
How it Works: Process, Interaction, and Decision-Making
The process of collaborative design often follows a set methodology which may also incorporate various tools and techniques of deliberation and decision making. For example, multi-criteria analysis or thematic dialogue tables may be used during an Enquiry-by-Design.
Influence, Outcomes, and Effects
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Analysis and Lessons Learned
Collaborative methods usually have several positive effects on the participants such as increased trust in government officials, belief in the legitimacy of the design and decision-making process, and a heightened sense of ownership over the finished product.
Architects and users in collaborative design: http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/192688/192688.pdf
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