Referenda (syn. plebiscite, ballot measure) are perhaps the most common form of direct democracy used by representative democracies. Unlike general elections, citizens are not voting on candidates but, rather, on a single political issue.
Problems and Purpose
Referenda (syn. plebiscite, ballot question) are perhaps the most common form of direct democracy used by representative democracies. Unlike general elections, citizens are not voting on candidates but, rather, on a single political issue. A recent example is the UK's referendum on its membership in the EU. Citizens were allowed to vote 'yes' or 'no' to the proposal (leaving the EU) which is a common format of referenda ballots. Referenda decisions are not binding although officials are often pressured to act in accordance with the outcome or else risk public disillusionment and lack of perceived legitimacy.
Origins and Development
Participant Recruitment and Selection
How it Works: Process, Interaction, and Decision-Making
Influence, Outcomes, and Effects
Analysis and Lessons Learned
Scottish Independence Referendum 2014
Somaliland Constitutional Referendum
Referendum on the Thirty-sixth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland
 Wikipedia contibutors, "Referendum", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Referendum
Constitutional Referendums and Democratic Deliberation
Referendum Democracy: Citizens, Elites and Deliberation in Referendum Campaigns
The Referendum Experience in Europe