School councils allow parents, staff, students, and community representatives to deliberate school-related issues in order to formulate recommendations for principals and school boards.
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Problems and Purpose
School councils are similar to Parent Teacher Associations in that they give recommendations to principals and school boards on a variety of issues. They differ in that councils tend to also include students, non-teaching staff members and community representatives.
According to the Ontario-based non-profit People for Education, "school councils provide advice to the principal and school board. Every school must have a school council, and members include parents, the principal, a teacher, a student (in high schools), a non-teaching staff member and a community representative. The majority of members must be parents, and the chair must be a parent. Principals do not vote on school council decisions." 
Origins and Development
Participant Recruitment and Selection
How it Works: Process, Interaction, and Decision-Making
Influence, Outcomes, and Effects
Analysis and Lessons Learned
Chicago Public Schools: Local School Councils
1. http://www.peopleforeducation.ca/faq/what-is-a-school-council/ [dead link]
Organisational competence: the study of a school council in action
Ontario School Councils: A Guide for Members: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/elemsec/council/guide.html
School Councils' Influence on School and Classroom Practice: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327930PJE7504_3
The Operations of Kentucky Rural School Councils
Professional-Patron Influence on Site-Based Governance Councils: A Confounding Case Study: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/01623737010004251
Do School Councils Matter? Abstract
Alberta School Council Resource Manual
Lead Image: Northern Gateway School Councils http://tinyurl.com/y2nrltwb