Le Champ des Possibles is a citizen project for the appropriation and management of an urban wasteland located in the eastern sector of the Mile End, in the Le Plateau-Mont-Royal borough in Montreal. It has been managed since 2013 in co-management by the borough and the Friends of the Champ des Possibles, a group of citizens who work to preserve the field as a community green space and habitat for biodiversity.
Mission and purpose
Les Amis du Champ des Possibles is a non-profit organization founded in 2010 following concerted ideation efforts with the Mile End Citizens Committee. Its mission is defined as follows:
- Sustain the Champ des Possibles as a public green space and an urban biodiversity reserve
- Promote and encourage popular education in natural sciences, history and the arts
- Promote the creation of new green spaces and urban biocorridors.
Since 2010, the organization has been working with citizens and the borough to develop a vision for the development of the Champ des Possibles and introduce the biodiversity of this urban wasteland to the public. [I]
Origins and development
- The land: an abandoned wasteland in the heart of Mile End
The Champ des Possibles corresponds to a space of nearly one hectare in Montreal, in the eastern sector of the Mile End, bounded by the railway line to the north, avenue Henri-Julien to the east, the large buildings of the avenue de Gaspé to the west and the former Viandes Saint-Laurent site to the south. Formerly called Champ Maguire, the land was a quarry operated during the 18th and 19th century, which then gradually gave way to a pond and a dumping ground. Drownings in the pond led to fill the unsanitary space. It was then acquired by the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1905 for its proximity to the railway line established in 1876. The Canadian Pacific Railway installed a marshalling yard there in 1906 [ii]. Abandoned at the beginning of the 1990s, the space gradually became an urban wasteland in the heart of an industrial district where green spaces and vacant lots were scarce [iii]. Gradually, the place becomes a space of citizen appropriation with multiple uses: spontaneous gatherings, campfires, picnics, but above all a space of circulation, shortened for the users heading towards the metro [iv].
- A buyout project by the City: the construction of a public problem
Owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway, the wasteland was approached by the City of Montreal for a buyout at the end of the 2000s [v]. The City's project is to transform the green space into a “truck yard” [vi ] , which involves concreting this green space contaminated by decades of industrialization. Citizen mobilization is important to counter the development of the project, while the 2009 municipal electoral campaign is in full swing. The elections constitute a window of opportunity to make visible the project to protect the urban wasteland of the Champ des Possibles.
- 2007-2009: citizen mobilization for the recognition of green space
In 2006, the City of Montreal joined forces with the Plateau-Mont-Royal borough to propose the holding of a consultation process on the future of the Maguire sector, which notably includes the abandoned wasteland [vii]. Many experts then mobilized to demonstrate the economic and real estate potential of this rapidly transforming space, in particular by the establishment of the Ubisoft company in the sector in 1997. As for citizens, they mobilized to promote the ecological value, social and cultural activity of the Champ Maguire wasteland. The mobilization has grown thanks to three types of action:
at. An artistic mobilization in the service of a cultural space:
An artist, Emily Rose Michaud, created in November 2007 a collaborative land art work to draw the public's attention to the Champ Maguire and its value, develop citizen engagement around the site and question the destruction project planned by the City. Entitled the "Roerich Garden", this work refers to the Roerich Pact, a symbol of the Second World War used to convey to pilots in charge of dropping bombs information on sites of great cultural importance [viii]. Emily Rose Michaud has joined forces with the “Sprout Out Loud” garden collective to maintain, thanks to a local citizen mobilization, a Roerich symbol made of plants and rocks all year round for three years [ix]. The project was documented by an electronic book, gathering 40 texts and 1000 images, illustrating the citizen appropriation of the space and the attentiwe give by citizens to their territory through the project [x]. The artistic citizen mobilization testifies to the cultural value of a wasteland and the space of possibilities created by a wild park in the heart of the city, considered too precious to be the object of disappearance.
b. Scientific mobilization in the service of biodiversity
More than 413 visible plant and animal species have been identified on the Champ Maguire site [xi]. An expert in urban biodiversity, Roger Latour, surveys the wasteland to identify the different species in order to feed his own research in natural history. The project to destroy the green space planned by the City of Montreal prompted it to mobilize a community of biologists and horticulturalists in defense of the site's ecological value. They then demonstrate, through scientific research, the importance of protecting the urban biodiversity that is created on post-industrial sites like Champ Maguire.
vs. Citizen mobilization in the context of a participatory approach initiated by the City
The publication of the first development guidelines for the sector by the City and the borough in 2006, then the announcement of an investment of $ 9 million for an urban development project in the sector in 2008 led the citizens of the district gathered within the Mile End Citizens Committee to mobilize. This committee, founded in 1982, brings together 600 citizens involved in improving the quality of their neighborhood and demonstrates a mobilizing force over time. The Mile End Citizens' Committee invites the Plateau-Mont-Royal borough to dialogue with citizens about the future of the sector. This takes the form of a public meeting on April 9, 2008, which initiates a participatory citizen approach at the initiative of the Citizens' Committee [xii]. The latter is organizing a series of citizen gatherings between May 2008 and April 2009. The citizen approach combines surveys of the local population and users, thematic citizen cafes (transport, housing, culture, economy and services, heritage and environment), visits and exploratory walks in the sector which culminate in the organization of a citizens' forum on April 26, 2009. Through a theatrical presentation of the challenges of the sector followed by small group discussions, the forum allowed the emergence of guiding ideas and concrete proposals for the sector. It gathered 130 participants. The Champ has been the subject of several concrete proposals, including the creation of a public square open to residents, artists and artisans, but also the preservation of its wild side through decontamination by natural means to conserve the existing green space [xiii].
- 2009-2013: institutionalization of the collective approach
at. A mobilization in the context of municipal elections
An informal collective brings together citizen mobilizations to demonstrate the cultural, ecological and social qualities of Champ Maguire. This collective takes the name of the Friends of the Champ des Possibles, thus renaming the Champ Maguire for the many opportunities it brings to the citizens of the district. It undertakes to give shape to the priorities established by the citizen forum and works on the drafting of a vision of the future for the urban wasteland. The citizen forum process then continues with ideation carts. These allow the realization of architectural plans presented to the City and to the various candidates for the municipal elections in 2009. The citizen's vision of the future brings together the different aspects of citizen mobilization around 7 priorities: the protection of the heritage character, of biodiversity , artistic practices, the promotion of educational practices, recreational planning, the development of the scientific and environmental dimension and support for the participatory process [xiv].
b. Recognition of the Friends of the Champ des Possibles as interlocutor and co-manager
Projet Montréal, the only party to fully adhere to the project presented by the collective, won the elections for the Plateau-Mont-Royal borough in 2009. In order to establish a dialogue with the elected officials of the borough, the Friends of the Champ des Possibles was institutionalized in the form of a non-profit organization in 2010. Collaboration was initiated with the borough to ensure the preservation and advancement of the project. After three years of negotiation and a consultationIn 2012, an amendment to the Town Planning Plan and the Borough's Town Planning Regulations made it possible to perpetuate the Champ des Possibles in 2013 with the granting of a natural area zoning [xv]. A co-management agreement in partnership between the borough and the Friends of the Champ des Possibles was also signed in 2013 for the years 2014 to 2017. It defines the Champ des Possibles as a "space for innovative experiments in terms of sustainable development and practices linked to the preservation of the natural character of the environment ”and recognizes the Friends of the Field of the Possibles as“ privileged interlocutor of the citizen mobilization and the promotion of events and activities ”[xvi ] .
- 2013 - 2020: Developments
at. The co-management partnership
From 2014 to 2017, external programming activities are planned by the co-management agreement at the expense of the Friends of the Champ des Possibles. The renewal of the agreement in 2017 allows the granting of $ 20,000 per year for 3 years to carry out activities of animation, surveillance and control of ragweed [xvii ] . The functioning of the co-management is based on the creation of a committee bringing together members of the borough, a member of the board of directors and the coordinator of the Friends of the Champ des Possibles [xviii ] . Thanks to the service agreement, Les Amis du Champ des Possibles were able to benefit from a place at the negotiating table to assert their vision of the site's development, but also from renewed financial support over time, which enabled them to subsequently seek other grants and consolidate their structure. The organization was thus equipped with a coordination and project manager position (in 2014 and 2015), was able to set up a strategic plan and increase collaborations. However, co-management reveals issues regarding the sustainability of funding, since the agreement has not been renewed since 2019 for lack of agreement on financial support from the borough [xix ] .
b. The mission of preserving biodiversity
The Friends of the Champ des Possibles mission is to "perpetuate the Champ des Possibles as a public green space and urban biodiversity reserve" but also to "promote the creation of new green spaces and urban corridors" [xx]. To do this, many partnerships have been established in the community of the Saint-Viateur East sector. Their objectives are to sensitize, mobilize and inform users of the Champ des Possibles on the process of rehabilitation and conservation of space. The organization is also joining forces with a group of university researchers to put forward the innovative aspects of the rehabilitation project, to list the biodiversity present and to think about new ways of decontaminating the field.
In fact, the co-management agreement between the Amis du Champ des Possibles and the borough involves joint work to establish a contaminated soil rehabilitation plan in order to protect the 160 trees from some twenty species [xxi ] . The Champ des Possibles project thus differs greatly from naturalized development approaches, which involve decontamination before leaving nature the right to expand in the wild. The Friends of the Champ des Possibles aim to find alternative ways to decontaminate, without massive intervention in wasteland. This approach first of all contravenes municipal regulations which impose the decontamination of natural parks frequented by the public [xxii ] and thus makes the specificity of the Champ des Possibles project.
To protect and promote the biodiversity present at the Champ des Possibles, census and cataloging activities are regularly undertaken and brought together under the name of “bioblitz” [xxiii ] , in collaboration with biology professionals. A biodiversity catalog was thus produced in 2014, listing the different species of flora and fauna in the park. It was updated and published again in 2017. Additional documents were also compiled: an inventory of insects, a state of health of the flora of the site, recommendations on maintenance for the years to come, etc.
To ensure the protection of organicdiversity present on the site, cleaning chores are organized with the help of volunteers. They are aimed at cleaning the site, managing the garbage cans and extermination of the ragweed present in mass at the Champ des Possibles. These chores are possible thanks to numerous partnerships with facilitating organizations, whether they are specialized in volunteering or social and professional integration activities for young people (Katimavik, YMCA, Diners St-Louis, etc.). Finally, in 2017, funding by the borough enabled the formation of a volunteer green patrol involved throughout the summer, in particular for the removal of ragweed, in collaboration with the Atchoum organization, which provides expertise on the eradication of this allergenic plant [xxiv].
vs. The educational and cultural mission
The mission of the Friends of the Champ des Possibles also includes an educational and cultural component, in order to "promote and encourage popular education in natural sciences, history and the arts" [xxv]. From 2015, a reception kiosk was installed in the park using a container in order to get as close as possible to the public and users. Many activities are organized on the site, thanks to partnerships or self-managed initiatives [xxvi ] . Thus, at the Champ des Possibles, it is possible to practice yoga, dance, botanical drawing, attend screenings by Wapikoni Mobile or even participate in day camps with The lion and the mouse. Numerous awareness-raising activities concerning the problem of ragweed are also undertaken on the site with signage but also among residents of the area through the distribution of flyers in letter boxes. To make scientific publications accessible, educational efforts are being made, such as the biodiversity catalog which has been adapted into a coloring book, sold for the benefit of the organization.
Finally, numerous outreach activities, in the form of conferences, guided tours and kiosks are organized with the academic and professional world to publicize the mission of the Friends of the Champ des Possibles and ensure mobilization around the project.
Organizational structure, membership and funding
- Organizational structure
Initially organized in the form of an informal committee, the Friends of the Champ des Possibles collective was institutionalized to gain legitimacy vis-à-vis the public authorities. Became a non-profit organization in 2010, then co-manager of the Champ des Possibles in 2013 in collaboration with the Le Plateau-Mont-Royal borough, the organization has since set up offices in 2016 within the Temps Libre Mile cooperative. End which adjoins the park.
The organization works by involving its members in sub-committees for the development of projects or for the annual management of the park (art, biodiversity, maintenance, etc.). In 2018, 424 members are part of the Friends of the Champ des Possibles [xxvii].
The operation of the structure is made according to the time and energies of each, because of the voluntary status of the members. However, paid positions seem to have been filled from time to time within the organization since 2014. A development coordination position has been occupied since January 2014, while temporary and contractual positions have emerged in 2015 as well as in 2017: responsible for the management of volunteers, responsible and support for ecological maintenance, biologists and entomologists.
If the Friends of the Champ des Possibles rely on the support of their members, the organization also draws its legitimacy within the Saint-Viateur Est sector by the organization of citizen consultations on substantive reflections on the future. of the park and the area. In collaboration with the Mile End Citizens' Committee, the Friends of the Champ des Possibles therefore act as an intermediary between the municipal authorities, with which they share the co-management of the site, and the citizens and users of the Champ des Possibles.
- Co-management committee
As the beneficiary of a service agreement with the borough, the Amis du Champ des Possibles must report to municipal authorities, which implies the implementation of strategic plans and reviews each year. Management in collaboration with the borough is made possible through a cog committeeestion, bringing together representatives of the borough and administrators of Friends of the Field of Possibilities [xxviii] to discuss issues related to the management of the site. The files handled by the management committee overlap with the site rehabilitation plan, development, waste management, uses and nuisances, control of invasive species and the restoration strategy. The rehabilitation of contaminated soils mainly occupies the committee, since the borough, the City of Montreal and the Friends of the Champ des Possibles must agree to submit a plan for the rehabilitation of contaminated soils to the Ministry of sustainable development, the environment. and the fight against climate change.
- Funding, donations and services
The main funding of the Amis du Champ des Possibles was provided by the service agreement signed with the borough, granting $ 60,000 over three years, from 2017 to 2019. However, this funding is not assured since the agreement that was to be renewed in 2020 has still not been the subject of an agreement, the borough no longer wishing to contribute financially to the maintenance and animation of the Champ des Possibles. To ensure the financial stability of the organization, the Friends of the Champ des Possibles have sought grants from various funding sources. Fundraising is aimed just as much at university research granting organizations, thanks to the many partnerships forged with the scientific community, as at private foundations such as the TD Friends of the Environment Foundation and WWF Canada which fund projects at the Champ des Possibles in 2018. Funding requests for employment subsidies were also filed in 2018 in order to hire mainly volunteer labor on the project [xxix].
Other sources of funding were provided by the community. Thus, a crowdfunding campaign in 2015-2016 enabled the contribution of $ 20,000 from 140 donors. This success led to a renewal of the formula in a monthly format in 2017. In addition, membership fees to become a member also provide a source of income for the Friends of the Champ des Possibles. Finally, the sale of derivative products since 2017 (herbaria, coloring book, sweaters, catalog) also provides funding for the mission. Part of the offer of workshops provided by the Friends of the Champ des Possibles could constitute an avenue of financing also by the sale of services [xxx ] .
Specializations, methods and tools
- Co-management of the site: a major player in the negotiations
The Friends of the Champ des Possibles mission is to perpetuate the urban biodiversity reserve that is the Champ des Possibles [xxxi]. As such, decontamination and securing of the site polluted by decades of industrialization can only be done gradually, with minimal human intervention in space. However, this operation is contrary to municipal regulations. Thus, the laws require the remediation of contaminated sites before any construction of new facilities intended for wide use of the public. Decontamination by excavation is thus very often recommended [xxxii]. In addition, the security standards for urban development stipulate lighting, accessibility and visibility requirements. These two standards are contrary to the objectives of the Friends of the Field of Possibles project [xxxiii]. The co-management agreement therefore involves negotiations not only in the development, maintenance and animation of the site but also in the procedures and ways of doing municipal authorities. The fight led by the Friends of the Champ des Possibles could thus renew the protocols for the management of contaminated sites in Quebec by "thinking them differently" [xxxiv].
In order to weigh in the negotiations and to be considered as a legitimate interlocutor of the public authorities, various strategies have been developed by the Friends of the Field of the Possibles.
The first consists in the institutionalization of the mobilized collective into a structured non-profit organization. Thus, the demands are transformed into action plans, transposing the space of struggles into a language and a form understood by public powers.
The second strategy deployed is to join forces with academia to promote the importance of biodiversity on the Champ des Possibles site. Citizen mobilization to defend the natural park project at Champ des Possibles was, among other things, initiated by a biologist who used the site as a reclaiming ground.search. Reconciliations with the scientific world continued thereafter, making it possible in particular to standardize the approaches and make the census procedures more rigorous by setting up a scientific protocol for data collection. But the work with scientists has also and above all made it possible to frame the mobilization in a scientific register, in order to gain legitimacy vis-à-vis the public authorities. The Friends of the Champ des Possibles thus seek to supervise and monitor the development of the project on the site in collaboration with universities. The avenues of research aim to develop a restoration plan based on a type of management different from that of urban parks, based on the idea that the site is alive and growing. “Ecological restoration focuses on creating the conditions necessary for the growth and evolution of a site as a living and changing system, intervening only as needed, and in order to offer greater diversity and resilience in the face of challenges [xxxv] ”. By translating the aspirations of the Friends of the Champ des Possibles into scientific language, the partnership with universities will be able to help offer clear orientations legitimized by university expertise with the City in order to modify park management practices.
Finally, the Friends of the Champ des Possibles also rely on a citizen mobilization strategy by positioning themselves as an interlocutor between municipal authorities and the local population. In partnership with local organizations, such as the Mile End Citizens' Committee, Espaces Temps or the Pépinière, the Friends of the Champ des Possibles are developing citizen consultation processes that legitimize the word they speak to the borough. This representational role is notably materialized during an Agora des Possibles project, set up between Espaces Temps, the Friends of the Champ des Possibles and Temps Libre Mile End and supported by the Le Plateau-Mont-Royal borough. The project aims to "amplify citizen initiatives" by stimulating the implementation of external interventions and offering a resource counter providing information on community projects within the district. The temporary developments proposed within the framework of Agora des Possibles were punctuated by mediation workshops and areas of free expression allowing dialogue between citizens and project leaders about the preliminary redevelopment plans of the areas invested. The Friends of the Champ des Possibles aimed by their participation in the mediation workshops to stimulate a critical mind in the face of the facilities offered to the public [xxxvi]. These consultation activities are regular for the organization, which in 2020 is starting a partnership with Concordia and McGill universities in order to understand the profile of users of the Champ des Possibles and understand the different uses of space [xxxvii]. Through this role of intermediary between the municipal authorities and the citizens of the district, the Friends of the Champ des Possibles benefit from a legitimacy from below vis-à-vis the public authorities.
Major projects and events
- Initiatives carried out:
- Chores: cleaning and maintenance of the space, plantations, control of invasive species, training of a volunteer maintenance team
- Animation: census, guided tours, species identification workshops, botanical illustration, courses and scientific popularization on biodiversity, distribution of flowers, cinema, exhibition
- Outreach activities: conferences, information kiosks
- Supported initiatives:
- Citizen consultations and participatory co-design workshops
- Animation in collaboration with sector organizations
Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “Activity Report 2014-2015”, http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/rapport-dactivitc3a9_acdp_2014-20151.pdf .
Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “2017 Activity Report”, http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/rapport-dactivitecc81s_acdp_20171.pdf
Friends of the Field of Possibilities, "Project Report 2017", 1 December 2017. http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/rapport-2017_convention-pmr-acdp.pdf
Friends ofu Champ des Possibles, “2018 Activity Report”, https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds%3AUS%3Adaea44ed-8162-4e89-9a18-fae1eea42f7b#pageNum=1
Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, 2019 Activity Report https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds%3AUS%3A00ad5a44-8397-4168-878f-0ef5532e724c#pageNum=7
See as well
[i] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, 2019 Activity Report. https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds%3AUS%3A00ad5a44-8397-4168-878f-0ef5532e724c#pageNum = 7
[ii] Yves Desjardins, “The 'past past' of the Champ des Possibles”, Mémoire du Mile End, 2019. http://memoire.mile-end.qc.ca/fr/le-passe-anterieur-du-champ -of-possible /
[iii] City of Montreal, Le Plateau-Mont-Royal, “Secteur Maguire. A rapidly changing territory ”, Orientation document, May 15, 2006. http://ville.montreal.qc.ca/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/ARROND_PMR_FR/MEDIA/DOCUMENTS/SVE_DOCUMENT_ORIENTATION_2006.PDF
Atelier braq, “Requalification du secteur St-Viateur Est (evolution)”, Ville de Montréal, 2010. http://ville.montreal.qc.ca/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/ARROND_PMR_FR/MEDIA/DOCUMENTS/SVE_ETUDE_ATELIERBRAQ_2010. PDF
[vii] City of Montreal, Le Plateau-Mont-Royal, “Maguire Sector. A rapidly changing territory ”, Orientation document, May 15, 2006. http://ville.montreal.qc.ca/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/ARROND_PMR_FR/MEDIA/DOCUMENTS/SVE_DOCUMENT_ORIENTATION_2006.PDF
[xi] Friends of the Field of Possibilities, “A History of Citizen Agriculture. The field of possible "Cultivate Festival Montreal, July 1, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/events/172701027435640/permalink/198230044882738/
[xii] The Mile End Citizens Committee, “The Mile End under construction: citizens express themselves! », Roerich Project, 2009. http://roerichproject.artefati.ca/open-cities/le-mile-end-en-chantier-les-citoyens-sexpriment/
[xiii] Mile End Citizens' Committee, “Le Mile End under construction”, Report on the citizen participation process, June 2009. http://roerichproject.artefati.ca/wp-content/uploads/DocumentForumCitoyenMileEnd2009.pdf
[xv] Le Plateau-Mont-Royal Borough, “Public consultation meeting. By-law 01-277-62 amending the Planning By-law of the Plateau-Mont-Royal borough relating to the Sa sectorint-Viateur Est ”, September 11, 2013. http://ville.montreal.qc.ca/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/ARROND_PMR_FR/MEDIA/DOCUMENTS/SVE_HISTORIQUE_CONSULTATION_2013-09-11.PDF
[xvi] Ville de Montréal, “Partnership agreement with Les Amis du Champ des Possibles”, 2013. http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Convention_Partenariat_2014-2017-1.pdf
[xvii] Ville de Montréal, “Financial contribution agreement with Les Amis du Champ des Possibles”, 2017. http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/CA17250208_AmisChampDesPossibles.pdf
[xviii] Friends of the Field of Possibilities, “A History of Citizen Agriculture. The field of possible "Cultivate Festival Montreal, July 1, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/events/172701027435640/permalink/198230044882738/
[xix] Friends of the Field of Possibilities, “A History of Citizen Agriculture. The field of possible "Cultivate Festival Montreal, July 1, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/events/172701027435640/permalink/198230044882738/
[xx] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “Activity Report 2014-2015”, http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/rapport-dactivitc3a9_acdp_2014-20151.pdf .
[xxi] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “Activity Report 2014-2015”, http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/rapport-dactivitc3a9_acdp_2014-20151.pdf .
[xxii] Luc Ferrandez, “A citizens' committee to naturalize a field”, Roerich Project Garden, http://roerichproject.artefati.ca/open-cities/un-comite-de-citoyens-pour-naturaliser-un-champs /
[xxiii] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “2017 Activity Report”, http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/rapport-dactivitecc81s_acdp_20171.pdf
[xxiv] Friends of the Field of Possibilities, "Project Report 2017", 1 December 2017. http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/rapport-2017_convention-pmr-acdp.pdf
[xxv] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “Activity Report 2014-2015”, http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/rapport-dactivitc3a9_acdp_2014-20151.pdf
[xxvi] Friends of the Field of Possibilities, “A History of Citizen Agriculture. The field of possible "Cultivate Festival Montreal, July 1, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/events/172701027435640/permalink/198230044882738/
[xxvii] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “2018 Activity Report”, https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds%3AUS%3Adaea44ed-8162-4e89-9a18- fae1eea42f7b # pageNum = 1
[xxviii] Friends of the Field of Possibilities, “A History of Citizen Agriculture. The field of possible "Cultivate Festival Montreal, July 1, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/events/172701027435640/permalink/198230044882738/
[xxix] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “2018 Activity Report”, https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds% 3AUS% 3Adaea44ed-8162-4e89-9a18-fae1eea42f7b # pageNum = 1
[xxx] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “2018 Activity Report”, https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds%3AUS%3Adaea44ed-8162-4e89-9a18- fae1eea42f7b # pageNum = 1
[xxxi] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “General Regulations”, 2018. https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds%3AUS%3Adad1dab4-73e1-4431-99a1-cd2243fdc91f # pageNum = 1
[xxxii] Nadia Lemieux, “Mile End, the perpetual fight of the Champ des Possibles”, Le journal de Montréal, June 12, 2018. https://www.journaldemontreal.com/2018/06/12/mile-end-le- perpetual-combat-of-the-field-of-possibilities
[xxxiii] Luc Ferrandez, “A citizens' committee to naturalize a field”, Roerich Project Garden, http://roerichproject.artefati.ca/open-cities/un-comite-de-citoyens-pour-naturaliser-un-champs /
[xxxiv] Nadia Lemieux, “Mile End, the perpetual combat of the Champ des Possibles”, Le journal de Montréal, June 12, 2018. https://www.journaldemontreal.com/2018/06/12/mile-end-le- perpetual-combat-of-the-field-of-possibilities
[xxxv] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “2019 Activity Report”, https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds%3AUS%3A00ad5a44-8397-4168-878f- 0ef5532e724c # pageNum = 1
[xxxvi] Agora des Possibles, “100 drawings below”, Activity report, July 2016. http://champdespossibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/rapport-dactivitecc81-et-recommandations-_p1_100dessinsdessous.pdf
[xxxvii] Les Amis du Champ des Possibles, “Volunteers wanted”, Champ des Possibles website, July 2, 2020. https://champdespossibles.org/articles/benevoles-recherches/