Data

General Issues
Planning & Development
Specific Topics
Infrastructure
Transportation Planning
Location
"The Ring" Highway
Antwerp
Belgium
Scope of Influence
Metropolitan Area
Start Date
End Date
Ongoing
No
Time Limited or Repeated?
A single, defined period of time
Purpose/Goal
Make, influence, or challenge decisions of government and public bodies
Approach
Direct decision making
Spectrum of Public Participation
Empower
Total Number of Participants
210000
Open to All or Limited to Some?
Open to All
Specific Methods, Tools & Techniques
Referendum
Legality
Yes
Facilitators
No
Face-to-Face, Online, or Both
Face-to-Face
Types of Interaction Among Participants
Express Opinions/Preferences Only
No Interaction Among Participants
Information & Learning Resources
Written Briefing Materials
Decision Methods
Voting
If Voting
Majoritarian Voting
Communication of Insights & Outcomes
Traditional Media
New Media
Independent Media
Type of Organizer/Manager
Local Government
Type of Funder
Local Government
Staff
No
Volunteers
No
Evidence of Impact
Yes
Types of Change
Changes in people’s knowledge, attitudes, and behavior
Implementers of Change
Elected Public Officials
Stakeholder Organizations

CASE

Referendum on the "Lange Wapper" Viaduct in Antwerp, Belgium

First Submitted By Paul Nollen

Most Recent Changes By Scott Fletcher, Participedia Team

General Issues
Planning & Development
Specific Topics
Infrastructure
Transportation Planning
Location
"The Ring" Highway
Antwerp
Belgium
Scope of Influence
Metropolitan Area
Start Date
End Date
Ongoing
No
Time Limited or Repeated?
A single, defined period of time
Purpose/Goal
Make, influence, or challenge decisions of government and public bodies
Approach
Direct decision making
Spectrum of Public Participation
Empower
Total Number of Participants
210000
Open to All or Limited to Some?
Open to All
Specific Methods, Tools & Techniques
Referendum
Legality
Yes
Facilitators
No
Face-to-Face, Online, or Both
Face-to-Face
Types of Interaction Among Participants
Express Opinions/Preferences Only
No Interaction Among Participants
Information & Learning Resources
Written Briefing Materials
Decision Methods
Voting
If Voting
Majoritarian Voting
Communication of Insights & Outcomes
Traditional Media
New Media
Independent Media
Type of Organizer/Manager
Local Government
Type of Funder
Local Government
Staff
No
Volunteers
No
Evidence of Impact
Yes
Types of Change
Changes in people’s knowledge, attitudes, and behavior
Implementers of Change
Elected Public Officials
Stakeholder Organizations
The following entry is missing citations. Please help us verify its content. click for more info

A referendum on a controversial traffic viaduct in Antwerp. The route gained only 41% support but, due to lower voter turnout, the results were contested and a new construction plan was drawn up.


Note: the following entry is missing citations. Please help us verify its content.


Problems and Purpose

The construction the 'Lange Wapper' viaduct in Antwerp, Belguim proved to be highly troubled and costly from the beginning, attracting heavy criticism from multiple groups. A referendum was held to allow citizens to vote pro or contra this road system.

Background History and Context

The Lange Wapper in Antwerp, Belgium, was set to become one of the biggest and most impressive viaducts in Belgium: a 1.5 kilometer-long cable-stayed bridge suspended on two 110-meter high pylons, with a curve, which is not common for these kinds of structures. This undertaking by the Flemish government, to be executed by Beheersmaatschappij Antwerp Mobiel (BAM), was designed to be part of the controversial highway ”Oosterweel-Connection”, completing Antwerp’s highway infrastructure by means of a short tunnel under the Scheldt river and a viaduct over part of the harbor area. Currently, all traffic on the Antwerp ringroad –– an estimated 250,000 vehicles per day, including heavily-polluting trucks –– have no other option but to take the southern section of the circuit. This frequently produces traffic jams in Antwerp's Kennedy Tunnel.

Over the years, several citizen protest groups made their opposition to this prospect clear. stRaten-Generaal (meaning “the streets’ general,” a wordplay on “States General”), agreed that the ring road should be closed, but proposed to do this by boring an extended tunnel through the port area, which would avoid residential areas and rejoin the Antwerp ring at a more northerly point. Ademloos also opposed the Lange Wapper mainly because of its detrimental health aspects, and collected signatures for their petition in favor of a referendum to allow the people of Antwerp to have a say in this matter.

When the project began, its cost was an argument in favor of the viaduct, the price of which was estimated to be around €500 million. A tunnel was considered too expensive. However, the estimated cost of the Lange Wapper rose to more than €2.5 billion. In early 2011, a survey of all proposed alternatives for the closure of the ring road around Antwerp, commissioned by the Flemish government and executed by a team of investigators from Arup/Sum Research, put the tunnel alternative (proposed by action group stRaten-Generaal) in first place, while the combination of Lange Wapper and a short tunnel (proposed by BAM) was given second place. Surprisingly, Arup/Sum spontaneously added yet another alternative proposal, an upgraded version of the stRaten-Generaal tunnel alternative.

Both stRaten-Generaal and BAM considered themselves to be the winner. stRaten-Generaal observed that despite the €80 million BAM spent on research and design, and the years of preparation it had taken, its project could not stand even the first test nor confrontation with a viable alternative. The BAM proposal was also met with fierce criticism from environmental groups because it would have led heavy traffic over residential districts.

BAM, on the other hand, believed its project to be the only option, as the tunnel option hinged on allowing lorry traffic through the Kennedy tunnel (under the river Scheldt), a possibility they refuse to envisage, even though traffic circumstances would be very different from what they are today, and the tunnel itself could be adapted and upgraded to today’s standards.. The result of the Arup/Sum survey caused discord within the Flemish government. One minister wanted the tunnel alternatives scrapped, as he was vehemently against allowing lorry traffic in the outdated Kennedy tunnel. Flemish Minister-President Kris Peeters (CD&V) decided that both remaining proposals had their merits and disadvantages and required further investigation.

The Flemish government decided to allow the city of Antwerp some time to commission further studies from Arup/Sum. These were completed by the beginning of the summer of 2009 and formed the basis of the information pack the City of Antwerp delivered to its citizens in the second half of September. It was meant to provide the necessary information to every citizen who wanted to vote on whether the Lange Wapper should be built.

Yet clearly the Flemish Government did not trust the City of Antwerp, as it also ran a Barnum campaign on local television and in the dailies, promoting their project. Noriant, the consortium of construction firms scheduled to execute the BAM project, financed part of this campaign. The rest was paid with taxpayers’ money. Meanwhile, the action groups sold T-shirts and organized benefit concerts to raise at least some meager campaign funds.

Organizing, Supporting, and Funding Entities

Ademloos, Straten-Generaal, purely on volunteers.

Participant Recruitment and Selection

The referendum was open to all voting citizens of Antwerp.

Methods and Tools Used

Referendum.

What Went On: Process, Interaction, and Participation

Some 66,158 people signed a petition calling for a referendum, which was presented to Antwerp mayor Patrick Janssens by the action group Ademloos. Janssens approved the referendum, and the unpopular project was put to a popular vote. The referendum, the first in the city’s history, was held on 18 October 2009.

The referendum asked people to choose pro or contra the 'BAM' road system (with 'Lange Wapper' viaduct)

The City of Antwerp took the result of the referendum into account when formulating its recommendation to the Flemish Government as to whether a building permit should have been delivered. The results of the referendum were not be binding and the final choice rested with the Flemish government. In Belgium, binding referendum is not allowed by constitutional law, although since 1996, consultative referenda on local and provincial level have been allowed.

Influence, Outcomes, and Effects

The plans were rejected in the public referendum in 2009. 41% of respondents supported a building license for the Oosterweel connection, while 59% opposed it. However, when the results were released, BAM argued that only 35% of elegible Antwerp residents actually turned out to vote; because the referendum only represented a minority of the electorate, they believed it was inappropriate for the poll to represent the voice of the entire city. After many years of debate and little material progress, the Flemish government decided in September 2010 to replace the bridge proposal with a series of tunnels following the BAM route. This plan, which has not yet been carried out, is projected to cost approximately €3 billion. But new plans and ideas are still on the table, also because a third action group 'Ringland' joined in. They have a plan to put the whole motorway system of the Ring in tunnels and to create a large space in Antwerp for leisure and living. Bij means of a 'Toekomstverbond' (Union for the future) (15/03/2017) the flemish gouvernement, BAM, the action groups and many other stakeholders, politicians, builders and civilians try to find a solution that also must lead to a better modal shift.

Analysis and Lessons Learned

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See Also

Referendum

References

External Links

Referendum Results

Article on Protests

Artistic Rendition of a Proposed Bridge Plan