Data

General Issues
Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Mining Industries
Business
Environment
Specific Topics
Regulatory Policy
Food & Nutrition
Location
Tanzania
Scope of Influence
City/Town
Links
https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf
Start Date
Ongoing
Yes
Time Limited or Repeated?
A single, defined period of time
Purpose/Goal
Deliver goods & services
Develop the civic capacities of individuals, communities, and/or civil society organizations
Approach
Co-production in form of partnership and/or contract with private organisations
Evaluation, oversight, & social auditing
Spectrum of Public Participation
Involve
Open to All or Limited to Some?
Open to All With Special Effort to Recruit Some Groups
Targeted Demographics
Stakeholder Organizations
Specific Methods, Tools & Techniques
Participatory Guarantee Systems
Legality
Yes
Face-to-Face, Online, or Both
Face-to-Face
Staff
No
Volunteers
No

CASE

Participatory Guarantee Systems in Tanzania

First Submitted By Institute of Development Studies

Most Recent Changes By Scott Fletcher, Participedia Team

General Issues
Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Mining Industries
Business
Environment
Specific Topics
Regulatory Policy
Food & Nutrition
Location
Tanzania
Scope of Influence
City/Town
Links
https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf
Start Date
Ongoing
Yes
Time Limited or Repeated?
A single, defined period of time
Purpose/Goal
Deliver goods & services
Develop the civic capacities of individuals, communities, and/or civil society organizations
Approach
Co-production in form of partnership and/or contract with private organisations
Evaluation, oversight, & social auditing
Spectrum of Public Participation
Involve
Open to All or Limited to Some?
Open to All With Special Effort to Recruit Some Groups
Targeted Demographics
Stakeholder Organizations
Specific Methods, Tools & Techniques
Participatory Guarantee Systems
Legality
Yes
Face-to-Face, Online, or Both
Face-to-Face
Staff
No
Volunteers
No

Participatory Guarantee Systems were adopted by farmers in Towelo village in 2010, providing an alternative form of certification that emphasize the participation of producers, especially in emerging markets.

Problems and Purpose

According to IFOAM, Participatory Guarantee Systems are “locally focused quality assurance systems. They certify producers based on active participation of stakeholders and are built on a foundation of trust, social networks and knowledge exchange.”[1] PGS in Tanzania have assisted smallholder farmers in Towelo Village, Morogoro to sell their produce with the East Africa Organic Mark without an expensive third-party certification.[2]

Previous to the introduction of PGS in East Africa, most organic producers were certified through third party certifications mostly based on the EU market.[3] Farmers’ role in the guarantee process was non-existent. In contrast, PGS emphasises farmer participation and ownership right from the initial design, knowledge and capacity building and sales in the local market.[4] 

Background History and Context

Due to population growth and a subsequent need to produce more food, villagers in the Morogoro Municipality in Eastern Tanzania started cultivating the hills surrounding their settlements whereas in the past they had only cultivated the plains.[5] In 2010, the non-governmental organisation Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania (SAT) began working with farmers to encourage the adoption of more sustainable agronomic practices in the newly cultivated areas to prevent soil erosion.[6]

Under the leadership of SAT, in 2010, the Maendeleo Group was started in Towelo village. During training, SAT recognised the farmers’ propensity for organic methods but acknowledged the prohibitive expense of third party certification. [7] In 2011, SAT contacted Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement (TOAM) to request Participatory Guarantee Systems training for the Maendeleo Group.[8]

After three years of additional training, the Maendeleo Group was approved by TOAM for the use of the East Africa Organic Mark on the vegetables they sell.[9] The group now has a bank account and is registered with the district council in the Community Development Department.

Organizing, Supporting, and Funding Entities

Originating entities include: IFOAM, National Organic Agriculture Movements (NOAMs), Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania (SAT).[10]

Participant Recruitment and Selection

Know how participants were recruited? Help us complete this section!

Methods and Tools

Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) are alternative certification schemes, built on trust and social networks and intended for local markets. In contrast to third party export-oriented certification schemes, farmers are directly involved in the design of the system. Farmer-to-farmer peer-review is an essential feature, built on equality and knowledge-sharing between the inspector and the inspected.[11]

Developed by IFOAM (the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements), PGS emphasize the participation of producers, especially in emerging markets. According to IFOAM, “PGS are locally focused quality assurance systems. They certify producers based on active participation of stakeholders and are built on a foundation of trust, social networks and knowledge exchange.”[12]

PGS’s are intended to be non-hierarchical and have a shared ownership, democratic structure, and collective responsibility.[13]

What Went on: Process, Interaction, and Participation

Through a general assembly, all producers have equal rights and decisions are taken democratically. Other stakeholders (e.g. SAT or TOAM) have no decision-making power. The Participatory Guarantee System group includes a Training Committee, a Standard and Inspection Committee and a Marketing Committee, with activities coordinated by a Secretariat.[14]

Farmer-to-farmer peer-review is an essential feature. Producers make a pledge (contract) between them and the group, and every three months their farm is inspected by the Standard and Inspection Committee, focused on terracing, biodiversity, soil fertility and pest management. Equality between the inspectors and the inspected contrasts with the control and compliance approach of third-party standards, and provides an opportunity to share challenges and personal experiences, with a more efficient and equal access to knowledge. The Secretariat decides on approval of each producer. Producers do not get their own certificate – the group is certified based on the East African Organic Mark (EAOM) and the use of EAOM is managed by the group as a whole.[15]

Influence, Outcomes, and Effects

PGS build the market for sustainably produced food and agriculture products and may directly include consumers in the process, as well as supporting organizations that work with producer groups.[16]

The Maendeleo Group is one of 15 PGS’s functioning in East Africa. It is now formally organised, with a bank account and formal registration, and implementing a PGS to certify tomatoes, carrots, aubergines, cabbage and bananas which are sold in two shops: in Morogoro and Dar Es Salaam. The group has been approved by TOAM for the use of the East Africa Organic mark.[17] 

Analysis and Lessons Learned

Challenges have included the difficulty in changing mindsets regarding third party certification; the farmers’ capacity to collect fees, manage expenses, and keep records.[18] There are also continuing issues of self-sustainability without external support from NGOs and recognition by government legalisation as well as international bodies.[19]

See Also

Participatory Guarantee Systems

References    

[1] IFOAM. “Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) | IFOAM.” IFOAM Organics International, 2019, https://www.ifoam.bio/es/organic-policy-guarantee/participatory-guarantee-systems-pgs

[2] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa : Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[3] Källander, Inger. Participatory Guarantee Systems–PGS. Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, 2008, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgsstudybyssnc_2008.pdf

[4] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa : Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[5] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa : Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[6] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa: Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[7] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa: Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[8] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa: Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[9] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa: Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[10] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa: Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[11] Willer, Helga, and Julia Lernoud. The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics & Emerging Trends - 2015. Research Insitute of Oragnic Agriculture (FiBL) and IFOAM - Organics International, 2015, http://www.sinab.it/sites/default/files/The%20World%20of%20Organic%20Agriculture%20-%20Statistic%20%26%20Emerging%20Trends%20-%202015.pdf#page=136

[12] [v]IFOAM. “Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) | IFOAM.” IFOAM Organics International, 2019, https://www.ifoam.bio/es/organic-policy-guarantee/participatory-guarantee-systems-pgs

[13] IFOAM. “Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) | IFOAM.” IFOAM Organics International, 2019, https://www.ifoam.bio/es/organic-policy-guarantee/participatory-guarantee-systems-pgs

[14] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa : Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[15] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa : Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[16] Källander, Inger. Participatory Guarantee Systems–PGS. Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, 2008, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgsstudybyssnc_2008.pdf

[17] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa : Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[18] Katto-Andrighetto, Joelle. Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa : Case Studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. IFOAM in Germany, 2013, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

[19] Källander, Inger. Participatory Guarantee Systems–PGS. Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, 2008, https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgsstudybyssnc_2008.pdf

External Links

Participatory Guarantee Systems in East Africa: https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/pgs_in_east_africa.pdf

Notes

Lead image: Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania, "Farmers celebrating after getting certified," https://goo.gl/8iLs8D

The first submission of this Participedia entry was adapted from a research project by the Institute of Development Studies, 'Linking Participation and Economic Advancement’ licensed and reproduced under Creative Commons (CC BY 3.0).

Original source: https://www.eldis.org/keyissues/mapping-participation-economic-advancement