The participatory comparison for the new Apulian urban plans is essential: to identify the invariants, considering the perception of the territory by the populations who reside there, as required by the European Landscape Convention and the PPTR, and to collect proposals that take into account the dynamics of development and aspirations of the entire community.
Problems and purpose
«The general objective of the process is to create a sustainable and participatory future, of which the resident population feels they are conscious creators, capable of strengthening their identity and allowing the full transmission of their cultural heritage.
The specific objective (purpose) is to increase the identity-territorial self-awareness of the users, creating a structure of relationship and participation that is constantly open for all citizens, in a process of progressive empowerment.
The results of the process will consist in the participatory elaboration of two documents:
- the Community Heritage Atlas , which will include the individual 'assets' that the Community indicates as fundamental for its identity;
- the Statute of the Territory , which contains the indications expressed by the Community for the preservation and management of the assets indicated in the Atlas.
Through the activities that will lead to the drafting of the Atlas and Statute, the Community will be able to express its vision on the territory, to imagine possible scenarios of evolution and understand the key choices that can determine them, as well as to verify how much the future PUG collect the information thus defined.
The citizens involved will be able to evaluate the future transformations of the territory, through the monitoring of the urban, landscape and territorial quality based on the indications of the Atlas and the Statute "(Link 1).
History and background context
«The Municipality of Leverano, with DGC n.176 of 22/10/2018, for the adoption of the Guidance Act, formally started the process of drafting the new Urban Plan (PUG).
The need for a new Plan derives directly from the institutional change in the way in which to look at the territory; the PPTR (Regional territorial landscape plan) first and the DRAG (Regional document of general structure) after they revolutionized the relationship between urban planning tools, project and territorial context, introducing the concept of a structural part , in which to bring back the invariants of the territory and part programmatic , in which to trace the directions for future development.
Both parties need a strong participatory discussion [...] right from the start-up phase of the new plan. [...] The choice of this early involvement, while bearing in mind that in the DRAG the entire process of drafting the new plans, which necessarily takes place over several years, presents moments of continuous involvement and comparison with the Citizenship and the Institutions , arises from considering the ideal structure that should underlie the processing phase.
The urban plans, in fact, after an in-depth study of the current conditions, should be able to produce plan alternatives, to be evaluated in the parallel and intertwined path of the Strategic Environmental Assessment; However, in order to do this, the parameters for this evaluation must be defined, that is, those elements against which to compare the proposals that are gradually being defined.
Hence the importance of the Community Heritage Atlas, as a document to be considered in identifying the invariants and of the Statute of the Territory to create a comparison matrix between the possible alternatives of the plan: having these contributions from the beginning allows you to build a new plan on a a solid vision of the community, a clear picture capable of making the work of the Planning Office directed and focused on the goals it intends to achieve ".
The PPTR of Puglia was approved in 2015, during the council led by Nicola Vendola who called prof. Alberto Magnaghi and his staff from the DIDA of the University of Florence. Founder of the School territorialist that from 2011 appeared before the organization ( SDT ), has been for a quarter of a century (1986-2011) national coordinator of research projects and experimental laboratories on issues of local self-sustainable development and territorial project; on the same issues he coordinated various projects and plans of a strategic and integrated nature. The strategic objective of the planning action is to maintain the balance between economic-social and environmental needs and participatory self-government, starting from the places. from material and immaterial “deposits”, from identities with their local heritage of perceived and conscious values on which to base lasting prosperity.
The municipality of Leverano is located in central Salento, 18 km west of Lecce and 10 km from the Ionian Sea. The constant demographic growth (6,900 inhabitants in 1936) in the last 10 years has stopped, keeping the population stationary (14,000 from 2011 to today). The political tradition is popular Christian Democrat. Architect Marcello Rolli has been mayor in office since 2017.
Organization, support and financing
Puglia Region - Participation Office coordinates all the processes and activities to promote regional participation and takes care of the Puglia Participate portal that the processes use for communication. Prepares the announcement and manages the applications from local authorities. A maximum of 20,000 euros is paid to each project. However, the applicant must contribute 20% of co-financing to cover the total estimated costs.
Municipality of Leverano . Planning Office and Municipal Territorial Information System. Owner of the PUG processing procedure and subject requesting the participatory process.
The group that oversaw the project is numerous, the coordination of the process is in the hands of the architect. Juri Battaglini (Studio Metamor, Lecce and LUA).
Scientific coordinator for the Atlas of Community Heritage is arch. Viviana Blasi (Studio 33, Leverano).
Another 22 collaborators follow in the role of facilitators, text curators, graphic designers, artists, administrators.
; color: rgb (0, 0, 0); "> The following aggregations are partners, but neither the relationships with the human resources involved nor the financial aspects are explained.
Terre d'Arneo Ecomuseum of Leverano.
LUA . Open Urban Laboratory based in San Cassiano.
Legàmi - Leverano community cooperative .
Recruitment and selection of participants
Process start: June 2019 , with tables where local actors were invited; the meetings held are not given. The list includes all the subjects interviewed for the SEA, therefore at various levels, regional, provincial and local authorities and agencies, neighboring municipalities, environmental associations, territorial development promotion, professional associations and chambers of commerce. In any case, the preliminary start-up document was sent to this complete list of territorial actors and the formal documentation of the plan procedure was made available.
Public presentation: 4 July 2019 , Largo Torre Federiciana di Leverano, 60 people present; the program of meetings was presented to the citizens, offering explanations on the modalities of participation, on the structure and function of the PUG, on the involvement in the process of the various actors of the social life of Leverano; already in this first meeting, albeit in an informal way, the first ideas were collected, from citizens on the ' sofa of the clouds '. This iconic object, the result of the work of young artists selected through a tender ( Risveglia Leverano - call for young creatives from Leverano ) and led by the artist Stefano Bergamo , then accompanied the entire part of the process carried out outdoors, becoming a recognizable identity element in the communication. The same artists, until October 2019, then carried out other interventions defined as " pop-up tactical urban planning " for neighborhood events, with the function of activating the attention of citizens by awakening an active interest.
Primo OST, (Open Space Technology) , 25 July (18: 30-21: 30), 49 people, (representatives of the environmental and cultural associations present) a completely general meeting in which it was possible to fix the basic topics of discussion for subsequent meetings.
The activities resumed in September (until December 2019) with training meetings for the " Ecomuseum Facilitators of Terra d'Arneo ", who then assisted the 4 neighborhood meetings ( 0); "> Narrazioni di Quartiere ), with 40 participants in the first outing (including a dozen facilitators), 30 declared on the site (but they are the same registered at the first meeting, in the same order, even if only 8 people appear in the photos ); of the last 2 meetings there is no feedback on what happened or on the number of participants.
From October to December, 6 meetings also took place in lower secondary schools , during a participatory urban planning workshop that involved seven classes, over 150 students and their teachers, personally involved; in the course of the workshop, the children carried out over 50 interviews with grandmothers , whose texts, together with the vision brought by the children, helped to outline many proposals.
During the process there were then two additions, the first was the involvement of the “La Box of Tin” Association , in the narration of the Historic Center.
The ACR Leverano (Catholic Youth Action) has independently carried out workshops within the national program “ It's the right city! ", Culminating in an event held on November 1, 2019, in which ideas and proposals were shared - the initiative involved in particular children and young people aged 9 to 12, an age group with which interactions had been enough low.
In January 2020 , the OSTs were then resumed , on specific topics , which emerged in importance during the previous meetings, which took the form of a focus group , given that the few participants wanted to express themselves on every point that emerged; in particular, the two meetings in January had the title-theme “ Nature, agriculture and landscape: is there a future beyond Xylella? "(No account is given, the photos show about 20 participants) and" The Historic Center, a lively neighborhood or a historical memory? "(No report is given, about 12 people).
Also in January 2020, the Terra d'Arneo Ecomuseum , assisted by external experts, began the elaboration of the sheets of the Community Heritage Atlas, concerning the tangible and intangible assets nominated by citizens during the meetings. In this context, the Ecomuseum first carried out meetings in presence and excursions to some places of particular significance, then, during the block period for the coronavirus, it continued its activity within the social group of its registered members ( 25 citizensr: transparent; color: rgb (0, 0, 0); ">), also carrying out various group meetings via video call .
The entire participatory process was, from the beginning, shared in its meetings, events and results on Puglia participates; during February 2020 all the proposals collected, which are the core of the Participatory Proposal Document (DocPP), were uploaded in the appropriate section and disseminated via social media, in order to allow a comparison on them with the participants in the process and the whole citizenship.
Last public consultation meeting , originally conceived as a scenario meeting, which, however, could not take place via teleconference, given the complexity. In agreement with the Regional Offices, an alternative method of development was then prepared, through the collection of images-ideas through social media (Draw your future - I imagine a Leverano ...; from 9 to 30/6/20 ), carried out by the Cooperative of “Legàmi” Community , which saw 37 active participants in providing contributions, with an average age between 25-30 years, and a much greater number of contacts (several hundred), which identified the proposals as heralds of the city vision.
Overall, two multi-day training events took place, 10 direct public meetings; 4 meetings in the districts that included an excursion followed by a facilitated meeting; 7 assemblies (two in presence and five in videoconference) and three landscape excursions with the Terra d'Arneo Ecomuseum; and, finally, the final online participation event of the Community Cooperative which lasted twenty days.
About 400 citizens of all age groups were contacted directly and another 250 were contacted via social media channels. 
Methods and tools used
Pop-up of urbanism or tactical urbanism (Tactical urbanism). They are practical actions of intervention in the urban public environment, which modify, decorate, equip the spaces with temporary installations. Actions can start on the initiative of local government authorities, associations or community-based groups, neighborhoods or urban movements, and frustrated citizens, without municipal approval. In recent years it has spread around the world and dedicated organizations have been created that have created special manuals and guides (Link 2).
Open space technology (OST), OST is a method of collaboration that takes place in meetings of varying duration (from half a day to 2-3 days) and can involve as few people as a few thousand. It is based on the self-organizing abilities of the groups, aggregated on the basis of interests and stimuli, launched by the participants themselves. The first phase is plenary, introduced by the general question (prepared by the conductors) and by the solicitation to the participants to present topics of discussion, synthetically and with a short exposition. The proposals are collected on the notice board of the OST to which all participants can then subscribe. Then we move on to work in groups. Participants are encouraged to behave as free from patterns and labels as possible. A rule is the maximum freedom of movement, from one group to another, moreover there is the possibility of isolating oneself (without being considered eccentric) or going to the buffet whenyou want to meet others there. Each group is asked for a self-produced synthetic report. At the end of the OST the Instant report prepared by the organizational group is delivered . In Italy, OSTs generally last half a day, in this case even 3 hours. In fact, they do not exhaust the process within them but are usually used as tools in the opening phases of the processes. Furthermore, the large presence of organizers and expert figures - as in this case - if properly prepared, allows a better facilitation of spontaneous groups, can make clarifications, and make discussions more efficient.
Focus group . They are very common ways to bring together a group of people and start a discussion with them around a desired theme, thanks to the conduct of a moderator who is called to stimulate the discussion and verify that everyone can express their opinion. Through this methodology it is possible to collect different opinions, stimulate a comparison between different positions and explore different points of view or reach an agreement. To facilitate the discussion, you can resort to the use of post-its, maps and sheets, which allow those who are not comfortable speaking in public to express their opinions and those who have difficulty summarizing to reflect on which is the fundamental concept they want to express. Focus groups typically host 12-14 participants as in this case.
Neighborhood narratives. They represent fundamental stages of the participatory path “Towards the new PUG - Leverano designs its future”; the methodology followed within these meetings is largely experimental and subject to progressive improvements, to adapt to the need to stimulate an urban awareness and identity in the residents of the various districts and, at the same time, collect indications, proposals and perspectives to be included in the new PUG. The basic idea is inspired by the " Walks of Faro or patrimonial ", an event linked to the Faro Convention for cultural heritage and widely used in the ecomuseum, as well as by the Placecheck , a methodology developed in the Anglo-Saxon context to facilitate a catalization of processes of active citizenship at the neighborhood level. From the Promenades of Faro derives the involvement of local inhabitants, called to become the narrator of the history of the places they pass through and, in this way, recover a sense of unity in the perception of the neighborhood. In this sense, it does not matter if the story and the stories told are detected from an urban, cultural or anthropological point of view, but it is essential that they provoke that involvement, that feeling part of a life story written by several hands, of which everyone they are small or large part, indispensable protagonists or supporting actors and that unfolds continuously from the origins up to the present day. Retracing the stages of the foundation, development and maturity of a neighborhood, listening to it from the live voice of the inhabitants, means approaching the places by understanding their deep dynamics, rather than limiting oneself to a structural analysis of the urban-settlement component or asking the inhabitants to list "critical issues and proposals" to be taken into consideration for a new urban plan.
Collection of images-ideas. Photo contest. This is an amateur photography contest, activated via social media during the Covid confinement. The photos had to include in the frame a tag with the words "I imagine a Leverano ..." inwhich invited to insert a sentence in the free space. The photos collected were then awarded by a jury who also awarded 3 prizes in vouchers for books and comics worth 200, 100 and 40 euros.
What happened: process, interaction and participation
- Preparatory phase. From 14/6/19 to 1/7/2019.
- Creation of a process identity , with specific logo, template, explanatory graphics on the methodology of the meetings and calendar of the entire process;
- Preparation of a permanent urban laboratory under the Tower in the historic center of Leverano , “ Sofa in the clouds ”, for meetings, with all the documentation progressively collected and processed, and the possibility of leaving comments, suggestions and additions;
- Printed , with short summaries in English and French for the involvement of immigrants;
- Social pages and organization of communication through sites and apps (Link 1 - Phases).
- Engagement phase. From 19/6 to 31/7.
- The Encounters focus groups with the associations of the territory, the Ecomuseum (subject partner) and citizens' groups, to spread awareness in the community of the importance of the participatory process for the new PUG; no specific reports are given.
- General OST to identify the key issues to be explored for the community, on which to base subsequent meetings; During the OST 13 discussion topics were presented which, in agreement with the proponents, were grouped into four topics on which the participants activated group discussions. The individual discussion groups concerned: 1 - Social inclusion; 2 - Green areas and parks; 3 - Community goods; 4 - Public areas and places. Some of the themes proposed were eg natural shopping centers, future of agricultural landscape, children's town, elderly population, social inclusion and accessibility. The latter 3, for example, merged, made up group 1 on social inclusion. The meaning of Inclusion was distinguished from that of integration. If the latter concerns actions addressed to a group / category of individuals to be included in an already hypothetically functioning society, the first concerns the generality of the interactions, as a continuous process, aimed at improving living conditions. Having established the point of connection for all interventions in favor of inclusion, we moved on to discuss the operational indications. First of all, the factual ineffectiveness of all those inclusion initiatives was recognized which, however, do not present the fundamental requirements of dialogue and temporal continuity as the basis. From this perspective, the accent was placed on the concrete need to establish permanent social laboratories capable, at the same time, of bringing people together to listen to their needs, to regularly feed the substance of the PUG and to make them intervene in a concrete in the creation of some simple "social products" vehicle not only of personal sensitivity but also of collective well-being (example: next to the usual road signs and, in the context of an accessible and safe path, it would it is necessary to combine signals of another kind, which reason in images, which are easily understandable by children or by those who demonstrate specific cognitive delays and which through the drawings, perhaps made by the end users themselves, guarantee a minimum of orientation in the spaces . Furthermore - as an example of the various proposals that emerged in this group - it should be the task of the PA to create comfortable meeting places in spontaneous meeting places with attached accessible toilets, also taking care, however, to create the conditions for a territorial context marked by ethnic mix and, for that very reason, refractory to areas or services "dedicated to ...". Please refer to the instant report available. 
- The project resulted in a public meeting for the return of the OST results to identify priorities (Link 1 - Phases) but no feedback was found.
- Field participation phase. From 15/9 to 22/1/2020.
- The 4 neighborhood narratives made it possible to detect the deepest experience of the inhabitants, also conveyed by the perceptions that the places passed through. Only 2 out of 4 accurate reports are available concerning the more peripheral neighborhoods. In the report, a brief geographical and historical reconstruction of the district is first given: “The combination of Pozzolungo, Mennula and Diana represents a composite and diversified district, in which approximately 40% of all the inhabitants of Leverano reside. The district has a part of historical buildings, developed mainly south of via Cesarea in the first half of the 20th century, which is part of the so-called 'consolidated city' [...]. These first houses, with attics and vaulted roofs, began to rise around the main road network - the one that led to Porto Cesareo - and to connect the farms that already characterized these areas, such as Cutura, Diana, Gustapane and some others of lesser importance. and partly replaced by the more recent building. However, it was only in the 1970s, with the return of the emigrants who had worked abroad, that the currently most representative structure of Pozzolungo was created, with blocks characterized by high population density, very homogeneous building types and not very wide roads with intersections perpendicular to each other.  The narration continues by observing and enhancing non-visible aspects or details that may be relevant for the inhabitants, such as the panoramic-perspective views that open up in certain points of the town, the relationship with minor elements (walls, low walls, hedges) or not visible as those subject to dynamics of transformation in progress: gardens of private houses that will disappear due to new buildings, the closure of artisan workshops, shops and bars, the relationship with the countryside and the buildings incorporated in the inhabited area in the the seventies, the difficult care of the few existing green spaces due to the difficulties in providing the necessary irrigation to the plants. It was possible to understand the still vital sociality of the parish centers for the youngest and the affection for the places that express certain anecdotes. At the end of the itinerary, a discussion was held in the square with spontaneous proposals, such as the opening of gates in some surrounding walls to better connect pedestrian and bicycle paths, or to preserve and protect the ancient mulberry at the inurbated farm and plant others such as identity sign. 
- Pop-up interventions by young artists also accompanied this phase, creating installations (eg paintings on transparent sheets) that attracted the attention of participants and inhabitants, creating opportunities for contact, informal conversation, exchange of information.
- The workshops in schools with interviews with grandparents; no reports are given.
- Workshops organized by ground-color: transparent; color: rgb (0, 0, 0); "> ACR (Catholic Action for Children) Leverano (1/11/19) within the national program" It's the right city! ", culminating in an event, the first November 2019, in which ideas and proposals were shared. No reports are given.
- Final stage (27/1/20 - 20/7/20).
- 2 in-depth focus groups on: "Nature, agriculture and landscape: is there a future beyond Xylella?" and “The Historic Center, a lively neighborhood or a historic memory?”. No reports are given.
- Elaboration of the Atlas cards, by the Terra d'Arneo Ecomuseum (January 2020) , assisted by external experts, has begun the elaboration of the tangible and intangible assets nominated by citizens during the meetings, assemblies and social activities carried out from the same. No reports are given.
- Community vision. Collection of images-ideas through social media (9-30 June) . The images are collected in a page of the site dedicated to Puglia partecipate. There are no reports. The awarded images are not detectable.
- Participatory proposal document (DocPP), Statute of the territory - from February 2020 - 20/7/20. All the proposals collected, which are the core of the DocPP, have been uploaded to the appropriate section and disseminated via social media, in order to allow a comparison on them with the participants in the process and all citizens. The DocPP is organized by first listing the proposals pertaining to a particular area, eg “environment and health”: “define an agro-ecological respect area around the built-up area; [...] create a mapping of electromagnetic pollution around schools through regular surveys ”. Then, the curators of the process / editors identify "the areas concerned: rural territory, restricted countryside, urban center". Strategic interventions are identified for each. For the rural area, more controls by the municipality on the use of pesticides and greater awareness and education in their use and control of the fires of plastic material. In the second area, a buffer zone is identified, near the houses and the urban edge, in which to ban the use of pesticides, promoting low-impact agriculture and the multifunctionality of this area. For the urban center, the monitoring of electromagnetic emission levels, in particular at sensitive points, is proposed as the basis for the preparation of a regulation plan for new plants, which determines the degree of compatibility of each area. We then move on to the translation in the PUG:
- Analysis and study phase
- Determine the electromagnetic emission levels currently present.
- Phase of delimitation of homogeneous areas
- Identify the bands-areas of respect, near the houses, where to regulate the use of pesticides.
- Create a zoning for the evaluation of requests for new emission points of electromagnetic waves, based on the current levels and the vulnerability of each area.
- Plan policy definition phase
- Promote the multifunctionality of the restricted campaign as compensation for the ban on the use of pesticides.
- Establishment of the Rural Police and / or Voluntary Ecological Guards for the control of the territory. nt-2 "> Regulations drafting phase
- Limits for new electromagnetic wave emission plants according to the vulnerability of the area.
- Indication of the activities eligible for the restricted campaign.
- Phase of monitoring and control
- Schedule of regular monitoring of electromagnetic waves, to verify compliance with the thresholds in the different areas.
- Controls on the use of pesticides in the restricted campaign.
- Monitoring of illegal fires.
Each of these articulations is repeated for each category of proposals. 
Influence, results and effects
The DocPP is therefore configured itself as a Statute of the territory in which the dynamics, strategies and development policies are contained. To it is added the Heritage Atlas, where each asset has been inventoried in cards, with photos, geographical coordinates, references, how it was identified and by whom (references to the process or names of the community are reported), any constraints, safeguard measures in place and proposed. The two documents are an integral part of the PUG therefore, since there are no conflicts and objections, given the visibility of the process and the networking of the same in time, the influence of the process was effective.
Analysis and lessons learned
Transparency is deficient of certain parts of the process and products. Several reports are missing, some are not accurate (copy-paste of the participants in the reports of the neighborhood narratives), a financial statement of the public contributions (regional and local), with the resources used by the various partners, is missing. However, it does not lack the essential aspects. The sharing of the path also took place nominally, but there is no report of the initial table with the local actors. For example, on the conflictual issue relating to the use of pesticides and the buffer zone or on the burning of waste, a dialogue focus could have been concentrated between category representatives, representative subjects and environmental associations. Foreigners do not seem to be involved - as intended - while the handicapped and in particular the elderly and children, have been sufficiently involved. The methodology of the neighborhood narrative was particularly useful for information , although it seems that the residents may have perceived a certain intrusion in some cases. The Pop-Ups of tactical urbanism acted to dampen this effect ; although still in experimentation, it seems a very promising mix of methods that provides important contributions in a relatively short time (eg fewer / fewer organizational preliminaries compared to engagement methods with a fixed event). The overall representativeness is high, both direct and indirect, through the media, even if the voting at all did not work at all.and proposals (with no vote or only one) placed on the pages of Puglia participates (Link 1 - Proposals).
 Battaglini et al., DocPP. Participation proposal document, 15/7/20, p. 5, https://partecipazione.regione.puglia.it/uploads/decidim/attachment/file/918/DocPP_-_Statuto_del_Territorio.pdf (ril. 28/8/20).
 Ibidem, p. 6-7.
 Battaglini et al., Instant report, OST of 25/7/19, https://partecipazione.regione.puglia.it/uploads/decidim/attachment/file/115/Report_OST_del_25_07.pdf (ril. 28/8 / 20).
 Battaglini et al. Pozzolungo Report, 22/9/19, p. 3, https://partecipazione.regione.puglia.it/uploads/decidim/attachment/file/161/PUG_report_Pozzolungo_-_Mennula_-_Diana.pdf (ril. 28/8/20).
 Ibidem, p. 6-7.
 Battaglini et al., DocPP. doc. cit.
- Towards the New PUG: Leverano Draws its Future, https://partecipazione.regione.puglia.it/processes/pugleverano (ril. 28/8/20).
- Tactical urbanist's guide, http://tacticalurbanismguide.com (ril. 28/8/20).