The Public Debate originated in France but has since become a common method of public engagement and multi-stakeholder consultation required by some governments on large public works proposals.
Problems and Purpose
The first Public Debates were created by the French government to appease protestors following widespread opposition to the buidling of a major train line. The goal of Public Debates is to include all stakeholders and affected individuals in the planning process of large public works. In Italy, the Tuscan Region's Authority for the Promotion of Participation has institutionalized the Public Debate through the Regional Participation Policy.
Origins and Development
Public Debates were first institutionalized in France following protests against the buidling of the high-speed TGV train line. Passed in 1995, the Barnier Act set up the National Commission of Public Debate (CNDP) to enforce the use of Public Debates on public works that meet the law's requirements. The Debate Public is now part of a wider government initiative to increase public participation on planning projects. Similarly, the Region of Tuscany in Italy passed two laws of participation in 2007 and 2013 and announced a region-wide policy of participation. The requirement to hold Public Debates on large-scale public works projects is, like in France, used as a means of realizing the goals of the participation policy. As well, the entire process in Tuscany is overseen by the Authority of the Promotion of Participation which shares many of the same powers and functions as its French counterpart, the CNDP.
Participant Recruitment and Selection
How it Works: Process, Interaction, and Decision-Making
Influence, Outcomes, and Effects
Analysis and Lessons Learned
 See https://www.debatpublic.fr/a-quoi-ca-sert for a list of requirements